Hip Replacement


Are you tired of that nagging hip pain that seems to follow you everywhere you go? Do simple tasks like walking or climbing stairs feel like daunting challenges? If you find yourself nodding in agreement, you are not alone. Many individuals around the globe struggle with debilitating hip conditions that can severely impact their quality of life. However, there is a ray of hope in the form of Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgery. This transformative medical procedure has been a saviour for countless people, offering them relief from chronic pain and the gift of restored mobility. This article will be a guide that will elaborate on the preparation and recovery of Total Hip Replacement, providing invaluable insights on what to expect.

What is Total Hip Replacement?

Total Hip Replacement (THR) is also known as hip arthroplasty. THR is a surgical procedure in which a damaged hip joint is replaced with a prosthesis or an artificial joint. The primary purpose of THR is to alleviate pain, improve joint function, and enhance overall mobility. The surgery can be performed on individuals suffering from various hip conditions, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, hip fractures, and other degenerative joint diseases. As one of the most successful orthopaedic surgeries, THR has offered relief and enhanced mobility to millions of Indians.

Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgery is often considered when other non-surgical treatments, like medication and physical therapy, fail to provide sufficient relief. The treatment offers numerous benefits to patients:

  1. It significantly reduces pain, enabling individuals to engage in daily activities comfortably.
  2. The procedure restores joint function, leading to improved mobility and flexibility.
  3. THR enhances the overall quality of life, allowing patients to regain their independence and participate in activities they once enjoyed.

Steps to Undertake Prior to Opting for Total Hip Replacement Surgery

A. Initial Consultation with an Orthopaedic Surgeon
The journey towards total hip replacement begins with an initial consultation with an orthopaedic surgeon. During this visit, the surgeon will thoroughly examine the patient’s hip, assess their medical history, and discuss their symptoms and concerns. The surgeon will also explain the procedure, potential risks, and expected outcomes. It is essential for patients to be open about their symptoms and expectations to ensure the best possible treatment plan.

B. Medical Evaluation and Diagnostic Tests
Following the initial consultation, a comprehensive medical evaluation will be conducted. This evaluation may include blood tests, X-rays, MRI scans, and other diagnostic tests to assess the hip joint’s condition and the patient’s overall health. These tests are crucial in determining the best course of action and identifying any potential issues that need to be addressed before surgery.

C. Discussing Medical History and Current Medications
Patients must provide their complete medical history to the surgical team. This includes details of any past surgeries, allergies, chronic medical conditions, and current medications. Some medications may need to be adjusted or temporarily stopped before the surgery in order to reduce the risk of complications.

D. Addressing Concerns and Questions about the Surgery
It is natural for patients to have concerns and questions about total hip replacement surgery. The surgical team is there to address these concerns and provide the necessary information to ease any anxieties. Clear communication between the patient and the medical team is vital to ensure a smooth and successful surgery.

Pre-Surgery Preparations

A. Lifestyle Adjustments Before Surgery
In the weeks prior to the surgery, patients may be advised to make some lifestyle adjustments to improve their overall health and prepare for the procedure. This might include maintaining a healthy diet, engaging in low-impact exercises to strengthen the surrounding muscles, and quitting smoking if applicable.

B. Stopping or Adjusting Medications as Advised by the Doctor
The doctor may advise stopping or adjusting certain medications before the surgery based on the medical evaluation and the patient’s current medications. This is done to minimize the risk of complications and ensure a safe procedure.

C. Planning for Post-surgery Recovery and Support
It is essential to plan for the post-surgery recovery period in advance. Patients should arrange for a support system that may include family members, friends, or home care assistance during the initial days or weeks after the surgery. Preparing the home environment to accommodate mobility aids, such as walkers or crutches, is also recommended.

D. Final Instructions from the Medical Team
The day before the scheduled surgery, the medical team will provide final instructions to the patient. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, specific guidelines on medications to take (if any), and arrival time at the hospital or surgical centre.

E. Pre-surgery Fasting and Guidelines
Fasting is typically required before the surgery to prevent any potential complications during anaesthesia. The medical team will provide clear instructions for stopping eating and drinking before the scheduled surgery.

Recovery and Rehabilitation

Post-surgery recovery in the hospital typically lasts for a few days and involves close monitoring by the medical team to ensure healing, and manage pain. Effective pain management, including medication and techniques, and proper wound care to prevent infection are crucial during this period. Physical therapy is introduced to improve strength, flexibility, and joint mobility, accelerating overall recovery progress.


Total Hip Replacement Surgery is a transformative procedure that offers renewed hope to individuals suffering from debilitating hip conditions. By understanding the process and adequately preparing for the surgery, patients can look forward to an improved quality of life and increased mobility. Remember to communicate openly with the medical team, adhere to pre-operative and post-operative guidelines, and actively engage in rehabilitation to make the most of this life-changing procedure.


Q: What can I expect on the day before Total Hip Replacement surgery?
The day before the scheduled surgery, you will receive final instructions from the medical team. This will include fasting guidelines, specific guidelines on medications to take (if any), and the designated arrival time at the hospital or surgical centre. Following these instructions diligently is crucial for a smooth and safe procedure.

Q: What is the recovery process like after Total Hip Replacement surgery?
After the surgery, you will spend a few days in the hospital for post-operative care and monitoring. The medical team will manage your pain and ensure proper wound care. Early rehabilitation will begin, including physical therapy and mobility exercises to improve strength and flexibility. Your active participation in rehabilitation will significantly impact your overall recovery progress.

Q: How long does it take to resume normal activities after Total Hip Replacement surgery?
The time it takes to resume normal activities varies from person to person and depends on several factors, such as the individual’s overall health, adherence to post-operative instructions, and commitment to rehabilitation. While some patients may begin to walk with assistance soon after the surgery, it can take several weeks to months to fully recover and return to regular activities. It’s essential to follow your doctor’s guidance and gradually progress through the rehabilitation process to achieve the best possible outcome.

Nutrients for Joint Health 

When it comes to managing hip osteoarthritis, certain nutrients have been identified to be particularly beneficial in promoting joint health and reducing inflammation.

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: These anti-inflammatory properties might help alleviate hip joint pain and stiffness. One commonly recognized benefit of consuming these healthy fats is their ability to decrease the generation of inflammatory compounds within the body, thereby relieving individuals with hip osteoarthritis.
  • Vitamin D: This is essential for maintaining bone health. Research suggests vitamin D deficiency may be linked to an increased risk of hip osteoarthritis. Sunlight is one of the best sources of vitamin D, and its role in managing bone health cannot be ignored. Vitamin D can be obtained through foods like fortified dairy products, egg yolks, and fatty fish.
  • Antioxidants: Antioxidants are crucial in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in the body. Antioxidant-rich food help protect the joints from damage caused by free radicals. Including many fruits and vegetables in your diet will provide a wide range of antioxidants beneficial for joint health.

Foods to Eat and Avoid for Hip Osteoarthritis 

While certain foods can promote joint health, others can worsen hip osteoarthritis symptoms. Here are some dietary recommendations for individuals with hip osteoarthritis:

  • Fatty Fish: Add fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, and tuna to your diet for omega-3 fatty acids. They can help reduce inflammation and relieve hip joint pain.
  • Leafy Greens and Berries: Include a variety of leafy greens, such as kale, spinach, and collard greens, as well as berries and cherries in your meals. These are antioxidant-rich vegetables and fruits. They provide essential vitamins and minerals that support joint health.
  • Turmeric: This golden spice contains curcumin, known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Adding turmeric to your dishes or consuming it as a supplement may help reduce hip joint pain and stiffness.
  • Whole Grains: Always go for grains like quinoa, brown rice, and whole wheat bread over refined grains. Whole grains contain fibre, which has been known to affect reducing the levels of inflammation in the body positively.

Foods to Avoid 

Limiting or avoiding certain foods that can exacerbate hip osteoarthritis symptoms is important. For example, processed snacks, sugary drinks, and foods high in saturated fats should be minimised as they can contribute to inflammation and worsen hip joint pain and discomfort.


While diet cannot cure hip osteoarthritis, conscious choices about our foods can significantly impact symptom management and overall joint health. By incorporating nutrient-rich foods like fatty fish, leafy greens, and turmeric, individuals with hip osteoarthritis can provide their bodies with the necessary building blocks for joint repair and reduce inflammation.  


Q: Can diet make a difference in managing hip osteoarthritis? 
 Absolutely! While diet alone cannot cure hip osteoarthritis, it is recognised to play a vital role in managing the symptoms and potentially slowing down the progression of the disease. In addition, certain nutrients and foods have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and promote joint health, which can alleviate pain and stiffness associated with hip osteoarthritis.

Q: Which nutrients are beneficial for individuals with hip osteoarthritis? 
Several nutrients have been identified as beneficial for individuals with hip osteoarthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids in chia seeds, fatty fish, and walnuts have anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D, obtained through sunlight or foods like fortified dairy products and fatty fish, is crucial for maintaining bone health. Antioxidants in berries, spinach, kale, and broccoli help protect the joints from oxidative stress and inflammation.

Q: Are there any foods I should avoid if I have hip osteoarthritis? 
Certain foods should be limited or avoided if you have hip osteoarthritis. Processed snacks, sugary drinks, and food rich in saturated fats may cause inflammation and worsen hip joint pain and discomfort. Additionally, some individuals may find that nightshade vegetables like tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants trigger inflammation, so observing any personal sensitivities to these foods may be worth observing.

Hip dysplasia is a medical term for a common congenital condition that affects the hip joint, causing it to develop abnormally. The hip joint is critical for walking, running, and jumping. It is one of the largest weight-bearing joints. In hip dysplasia, the hip joint socket does not fully cover the ball of the upper thighbone, leading to instability and joint damage over time. This condition can cause significant discomfort and impact quality of life, especially if left untreated. With improper development, the hip joint becomes partially or completely dislocated, increasing the risk of arthritis and joint deterioration later in life. It’s a common condition and affects individuals of all ages, from infants to elderly adults. Those with hip dysplasia are typically born with this condition

Symptoms of Hip Dysplasia
The symptoms of hip dysplasia can vary based on the severity of the condition and by age group ranging from mild to severe. Some common symptoms include:

  • Pain or discomfort in the hip joint
  • Limping or favouring one leg over the other
  • Decreased range of motion in the hip joint
  • Popping or clicking sounds in the hip joint
  • A waddling gait or sway in the hip region

It’s important to note that some individuals experience no symptoms at all, thus, making it essential to receive regular check-ups to monitor the health of the hip joint. 
 In the case of infants, doctors check for signs of hip dysplasia shortly after birth and during follow-up visits. Usually, you will notice one leg is shorter than the other and find one hip less flexible during a diaper change. Or when the child starts walking, they may develop a limp. A soft brace usually corrects the problem of hip dysplasia if it is diagnosed in early infancy.
 In mild cases of hip dysplasia, symptoms may not start until a person is a teenager or young adult, damaging the cartilage lining the joint, and hurting the soft cartilage (labrum) lining the socket, causing a hip labral tear. It can result in activity-related groin pain and a sensation of hip instability. Surgery is usually recommended to move the bones into the proper positions for smooth joint movement.

Causes of Hip Dysplasia
The hip joint is formed from soft cartilage at birth, gradually becoming bone. The ball and socket must fit correctly as they shape each other. If the ball isn’t properly seated in the socket, the socket will be shallow and not fully formed around the ball. Crowding in the womb during the final month before birth can cause the hip joint ball to move out of place, leading to a shallower socket. The following factors may cause hip dysplasia- 

  • First pregnancy, 
  • Large baby, or 
  • Breech presentation.

Risks and Complications of Hip Dysplasia
Hip dysplasia has a genetic tendency and is more prevalent in girls. The risk of developing hip dysplasia increases in babies born in the breech position and those tightly swaddled with straight hips and knees. Hip dysplasia can increase the risk of developing other hip problems later in life, including arthritis and joint deterioration. These conditions can lead to significant pain and disability and may require surgery to correct. Hip dysplasia can also cause a person to develop a limp or walk with an awkward gait, leading to further musculoskeletal problems like arthritis and other long-term joint problems if left untreated.

Treatment Options for Hip Dysplasia
The treatment options for hip dysplasia may vary depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s age. For children, treatment may include physical therapy and bracing to help improve hip alignment and strengthen the muscles surrounding the joint.
 For adults, treatment options may include non-surgical options such as physical therapy, weight management, and pain management. Surgery may be recommended in more severe cases to correct the hip joint and prevent future damage.

  • Prevention of Hip Dysplasia
  • There is no surefire way to prevent hip dysplasia. Still, some steps can reduce the risk of developing this condition. These include:
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Engaging in regular physical activity to strengthen the muscles surrounding the hip joint
  • Avoiding high-impact activities that put excessive stress on the hip joint
  • Wearing proper footwear to help maintain proper hip alignment

Hip dysplasia is a common congenital condition that affects the hip joint and can lead to significant discomfort and disability if left untreated. Treatment options for hip dysplasia vary based on the severity of the condition and the patient’s age. They may include physical therapy, bracing, weight management, and surgery. By taking steps to maintain a healthy weight, engage in regular physical activity, avoid high-impact activities, and wear proper footwear, individuals can reduce their risk of developing hip dysplasia and maintain a high quality of life. You must have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor the health of the hip joint and address any issues that may arise.

 Q: What is hip dysplasia?
Hip dysplasia is a congenital condition in which the hip socket is shallow that does not fully cover the ball, causing instability in the joint and increasing the risk of arthritis and joint deterioration.
Q: Who is at risk for hip dysplasia?
Anyone can develop hip dysplasia, but it is common in individuals with a family history of the condition, women, and people with certain genetic conditions.
Q: What are the symptoms of hip dysplasia?
The symptoms of hip dysplasia can include pain or discomfort in the hip joint, limping or favouring one leg over the other, decreased range of motion in the hip joint, popping or clicking sounds in the hip joint, and a waddling gait or sway in the hip region.
Q: How is hip dysplasia diagnosed?
Hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRI scans.
Q: How is hip dysplasia treated?
Treatment options for hip dysplasia, depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s age may include physical therapy, bracing, weight management, and surgery.
Q: Can hip dysplasia be prevented?
While hip dysplasia cannot be prevented, individuals can reduce their risk of developing the condition through weight management and regular physical activity, avoiding high-impact activities and wearing proper footwear.
Q: Can hip dysplasia cause long-term complications?
If left untreated, hip dysplasia can increase the risk of developing other hip problems later in life, including arthritis and joint deterioration, which can cause significant pain and disability.
Q: When should I see a doctor for hip dysplasia?
If you are experiencing symptoms of hip dysplasia, such as pain or discomfort in the hip joint or a limp or waddling gait, it is important to see a doctor. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can also help monitor the health of the hip joint and address any issues that may arise.

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The natural aging process changes the body, biologically, physiologically and psychologically, along with other changes increasing older people’s susceptibility to disabilities and diseases. The term Geriatric means “of old age” and often refers to older people’s health conditions such as osteoporosis and dementia and healthcare. There is an increased risk for fractures in older people due to the bones getting weaker and losing strength and density. That’s why it is essential to know the signs of a fracture in the elderly so you can take action before an injury becomes more serious. If you have an older family member or friend, they’ve likely experienced a broken bone or two. After all, an estimated 71% of adults will break a bone at some point. However, this doesn’t mean that everyone experiences fractures in the same way or at the same rate as others.

What are Geriatric Fractures?

Geriatric fractures are broken bones that affect older people more often than not. There are several different types of geriatric fractures, each associated with a health condition and resulting in different symptoms. Fractures more often than not happen due to falls, accidents, or as a result of a direct impact or trauma to the affected body part.

Types of Geriatric Fractures

The two most common geriatric fractures are osteoporosis-related fractures and falls-related fractures. Osteoporosis-related fractures occur when older adults with osteoporosis have low bone mass, bone strength, and low bone density. This makes their bones more likely to fracture. Falls-related fractures occur when an older adult has low bone density and falls because they are not as strong as they used to be. This can happen because their balance is affected by a related medical condition such as dementia or the side effects of medication. Other types of geriatric fractures include fractures associated with poor muscle function and bone infections.

Symptoms of Geriatric Fracture

The most common symptom of a bone fracture in the elderly is pain and impairment of mobility. However, if the fracture is causing other symptoms, it’s necessary to see a doctor.

  • Pain in the limb that is difficult to explain, for example, or pain that goes away when the limb is bent, can be a sign of a fractured bone.
  • Limping or having a hard time walking can be a sign of a more serious injury and should not be ignored.
  • Redness, swelling or warmth, or bruising around the broken bone can indicate a more serious injury and should be a concern.
  • Loss of strength in the arm or leg can indicate a more serious injury.
  • A feeling of obvious deformity or change in how the broken bone feels can indicate that the bone has shifted or moved inside the joint, which can signify a more serious injury.

Risk Factors for Geriatric Fractures

Geriatric fractures like hip fractures can be debilitating with increased mortality, loss of independence, and long-term disability. Hence, we must pay enough attention to the risk factors for Geriatric Fractures and work towards fracture prevention and patient education.

Poor bone health: People with osteoporosis and low bone mass are at an increased risk for
fractures. Osteoporosis is a condition that occurs when bones lose too much bone density. 
The bones become weak and more fragile, leading to associated disorders like low body weight, malabsorption syndromes like chronic liver disease (CLD) and inflammatory bowel disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, and long-term immobility.

  • Dementia: People with dementia lose the cognitive functioning of the brain. They become forgetful, and their thinking gets impaired, affecting their daily life. These people are more prone to accidents and falls and are also likely to have low bone density, thereby increasing the risk of fractures.
  • Medication side effects: People who take medication to control blood pressure, reduce glucose levels, or control seizures are at an increased risk of fractures due to changes in their balance and strength.
  • Obesity: Obese are at an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Obesity affects more than just your looks and is also associated with an increased risk of fractures.
  • Poor Lifestyle and Behavioral Factors: Sedentary lifestyle, poor eating, sleeping, lack of physical activity, and unregulated drinking and smoking contribute to poor bone health and associated complications. Those with low calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency and lack of physical activity are equally at risk.

How are Geriatric Fractures Diagnosed?

It is often difficult to diagnose a geriatric fracture with/without any health conditions causing them. The doctor will ask about signs and symptoms, complete medical history of both patient and general family health to determine if there are underlying health conditions or any other risk factors for fractures associated with advancing age, and physically examine and try to determine the type of fracture by ordering for the following tests to help make the diagnosis,

  • an X-ray
  • a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • or a Computed tomography (CT) scan

Prevention of Geriatric Fractures

It is beyond our control to prevent or predict geriatric fractures caused by falls, accidents, and other injuries. As a silent epidemic, increasing fractures among the elderly are becoming a major public health concern. It is a priority to prevent fractures in older people or people over 65. The challenge is to identify those at most risk, especially those who have previously had a fall, intervene and assess risk levels, and ensure timely and cost-effective treatment. Awareness about improving bone health and reducing any risk of injury is a must.

  • A calcium and Vitamin D-rich diet to keep bones healthy and strong.
  • Follow a weight-bearing exercise regime to keep bones strong.
  • Complete abstinence from smoking. Tobacco and nicotine increase bone fracture risk and slow down the healing process.

Treatment of Geriatric Fractures

As an older person, if you’re concerned about your symptoms or have a broken bone that doesn’t cause other symptoms, don’t wait to see a doctor. Do not attempt to treat the fracture yourself. The most important thing to do is protect the injured limb, put the broken pieces of the bone back in place, expedite medical intervention to heal to reduce the pain and trauma, and avoid any complications.

Treatments typically include –

  • putting the fractured bone in a splint or cast
  • medication to reduce/control the pain
  • traction to stretch the muscles and tendons around the injured bone to help alignment and healing, and
  • surgery to fix certain types of fractured bones into place. Surgery involves the installation of metal rods or pins inside the bone or outside the body to hold the bone fragments in place for them to heal.

The prognosis for Geriatric Fractures

The prognosis for a geriatric fracture is good if the fracture is diagnosed early and treated properly. But if it is not managed properly, it can result in serious complications. It’s crucial to protect an injured limb and see a doctor. In many cases, the fracture can be treated with medication, surgery, or a combination of these procedures. It’s important to know that even when the fracture heals, some changes in the bone may be permanent.


Fractures are a serious risk for older adults, especially those with low bone density, a fall-related or osteoporosis-related fracture, or a fracture associated with poor muscle function. For these reasons, it’s important to know the signs of a fracture and protect yourself from injury. If you notice any sign of a fracture, don’t hesitate to see a doctor. They can help protect your health and avoid serious long-term damage.


What type of fractures is most common in the elderly?

Older people are at high risk of bone fragility, falls, and fractures. The most common fractures among the elderly are hip fractures, accounting for at least 90 percent. Typically, all appendicular fractures are precipitated by a fall.

Why are fractures common in the elderly?

Fractures are most common in the elderly because of advancing age, bones getting weaker and brittle due to osteoporosis, and an unfortunate fall. The bones get more fragile with age with the natural bone tissue changes. For women, especially after menopause, the bones get weaker and thinner with the decline in the female hormone estrogen.

Why do the elderly take longer to heal fractures?

The elderly usually take longer to heal fractures because of the declining count of stem cells in the bone marrow due to old age. Recovery from a bone fracture requires sufficient vascularization and the formation of blood vessels in the tissue. Advancing age tends to hinder this process by preventing crucial bone healing sites.

Can the elderly recover from fractures?

When the elderly experience a fall and a fracture, many recover fully, get back on their feet, and lead normal lives. The key lies in prompt action and dealing with all kinds of falls and fractures with precision and timely medical intervention in the case of any type of fracture involving the upper leg, knees, pelvis, hip, skull, back and neck.

How do you know if a fracture is healing?

Never mind how big or small a fracture is, there are 4 tell-tale signs to tell if a fracture is healing or not.

  1. Decreasing Pain – When the intensity of pain a fracture afflicted person experiences is on the decline.
  2. Improved Mobility – The healing period of a fracture can render a fracture-afflicted elderly patient pretty immobile. As the healing takes over, the mobility of the affected limb will improve.
  3. Lack of Bruising – When the area around a fractured bone shows no signs of bruising, the fracture is healing well.
  4. Decreasing Swelling – When the area around a fractured bone displays less swelling, know that it’s healing well.

Can an old fracture cause problems years later?

An untreated bone fracture can result in either a nonunion or a delayed union. When the bone doesn’t heal at all, it is called nonunion fracture. As a result, swelling, tenderness, and pain will continue to worsen. Delayed union fracture is when the bone takes more than the usual time to heal.

Can broken bones cause dementia?

The quality of life after an older person suffers from a fracture significantly affects the onset of
dementia. The after-effects of a bone fracture can result in less mobility and decline in physical agility, chronic pain, and prolonged inflammatory cytokine secretion during fracture repair can end up contributing to dementia.

When does a fracture stop hurting?

After a broken bone fracture of an older person is fixed by the doctor without surgery, the pain may subside significantly right after. However, an elderly person may experience some pain for up to 3-4 weeks and mild pain for up to 6-7 weeks after surgery.

What happens if a fracture doesn’t heal?

After a bone fracture, the body gets into a healing mode. If the broken parts of the bones are not properly aligned, the bone will go on to heal with a deformity called a malunion. This happens when a new bone occupies the huge space between the displaced ends of the broken bone.

What slows down bone healing?

High glucose levels and habits like smoking and drinking delay bone healing. For all elderly patients with fractured bones, being immobile for some time is a crucial factor in the treatment process. The healing process significantly slows down with any movement of bone fragments.


Joint pain is a common condition affecting many people at some point in their lives. It can also be a symptom of other conditions. The causes of joint pain vary from person to person and often depend on the specific joint involved. Painful joints are usually caused by overuse, injury, or inflammation. Treating joint pain requires addressing the underlying cause and reducing any aggravating factors that could lead to further problems in the future. 

What is joint pain?

The medical term for joint pain is arthralgia and must not be confused with arthritis (means inflammation of the joint). Joint pain is a generalized discomfort in the joints. It is generally felt in the joints and surrounding tissues such as muscles. The joints most commonly affected by joint pain are the hip, knee, and shoulder joints. The intensity and duration of joint pain can be influenced by genetics, age, gender, and lifestyle (such as diet and exercise). 

Kinds of joint pain

There are 3 categories of joint pain, namely the following,

1. Non-displaced pain – The most common type of joint pain affecting around 70% of the population is non-displaced joint pain. It occurs due to wear and tear of the joint, injury, or arthritis and is often a result of ageing. 

2. Displaced, subluxation and pathologic joint pain – Displaced pain is pain that is located outside of the joint. Subluxation is joint pain that results from the abnormal movement of the joint, and pathologic pain is pain that is caused by an underlying disease and typically results from inflammation.

3. No joint pain – Joint pain that does not have a specific cause is known as “no joint pain.” It is uncommon and can occur due to systemic diseases such as kidney stones or hormonal changes.

Causes of Joint pain

The possible causes of joint pain will depend on age and activity. The joint pain reasons in children will differ from the causes of joint pain in adults. The commons causes are 

1. Overuse or repetitive joint movements – Over time, the muscles around a joint can become weak or damaged. This can lead to joint pain due to the inflammation that the damaged muscles try to repair themselves. 

2. Articular cartilage damage – Overuse and repetitive movements can damage the cartilage in the joints, leading to pain and inflammation.

3. Muscular injuries – Unintentional or overexercised muscles can become too tight, causing pain and signals to the brain. 

4. Arthritis – Joint inflammation is the common cause of joint pain. It can occur due to an injury, joint damage, or an underlying disease such as arthritis.

5. Infectious diseases – Joint inflammation caused by an infection can occur due to an existing injury, damage to the joint, or a viral infection like COVID.

6. Congenital joint abnormalities – Joint abnormalities at birth (congenital) can lead to pain and disability.

Symptoms of Joint Pain

The symptoms of joint pain depend on the cause of the pain. The symptoms of joint pain can vary depending on the person but may include:

1.      Swelling – This is a common symptom of joint pain and accompanies periods of inflammation. 

2.      Pain – Joint pain is the most common symptom of joint inflammation.

3.      Weakness – Joint pain can also result in muscle weakness, preventing the person from performing joint-related activities such as walking or standing. 

4.      Reduced range of motion – Joint pain can restrict joint movement, preventing full movement in the joint.


Risk Factors of Joint Pain

The factors that can increase one’s risk of developing joint pain include: 

1.      Overuse or repetitive joint movements – Overuse of a joint can damage muscles and ligaments that support the joint. This can result in pain and reduced joint movement. 

2.      Age – As people age, their joints become more susceptible to damage and inflammation, causing joint pain.

3.      Injury – Joint damage can also cause joint pain.

4.      Arthritis – People with arthritis are more likely to develop joint pain. 

5.      Heredity – Certain genetic conditions can predispose people to joint pain. 

6.      Smoking – Smoking dramatically increases the risk of developing joint pain.

Foods and activities that cause Joint Pain

The following are some foods and activities that we must avoid to curb joint pain,

1.      Overeating – Excessive weight and overconsumption of certain foods are both associated with an increased risk of joint pain. 

2.      Lack of sleep – Sleep is essential for the repair and maintenance of the joints. Lack of sleep can lead to joint pain. Heavily exercised muscles – Exercising a joint leads to muscle damage, which can result in joint pain.

3.      Back pain – Weak or injured muscles in the back can lead to back pain and joint stiffness.

4.      Obesity – Excess weight can contribute to joint pain through damage to muscles and ligaments.

5.      Foods – Sugar, Alcohol, Processed Food, Salt, Processed Meat, and Gluten-rich food.


Foods and activities that relieve Joint Pain

The following are some foods and activities that relieve joint pain,

1.      Rest – Resting the joint after exercise or performing joint-related movements like walking.

2.      Ice – Ice applied to the joint can reduce inflammation and pain by reducing swelling.

3.      Heat – Warmth applied to the joint has anti-inflammatory properties, reducing pain and swelling.

4.      Elevation – Keeping the joint above the heart level can prevent damage to the joint and reduce pain. 

5.      Gentle movements – Gentle joint movements, such as rotating the joint instead of swinging it, can prevent damage to the joint.

6.      Foods – Omega 3 Fatty Acids rich foods, Nuts and Seeds, Lentils, Colourful Fruits, Whole Grains and Root Vegetables

Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery From Joint Pain

You should immediately see a doctor if you experience joint pain with swelling, redness, tenderness, and warmth around the joint.  While joint pain can be frustrating and inconvenient, it is essential to remember that it is usually not a severe life-threatening health problem. It can also signify a serious underlying condition such as arthritis or covid in the backdrop of the pandemic. The underlying cause will determine the mode of treatment.  

The analysis of pain will also determine the next steps like

– Losing weight (for overweight and obese patients)

– Regular exercise and physiotherapy

– Avoiding overuse or exertion of the affected joint

– Healthy nutrition 

– Regular massage to help relieve the pain until resolution

-Rehabilitation exercises, medical treatment, and joint strengthening to restore joint function and prevent further damage

By taking appropriate steps to treat the underlying cause and strengthen the muscles around the joint, joint pain can be easily resolved without treatment or with medicines and some self-care. Some joint pains may require long-term treatment and involve a rheumatologist, orthopedic surgeon, or physiotherapist. 


1. What is the leading cause of joint pain?

Answer – The leading causes of joint pain are Overuse or repetitive joint movements, Articular cartilage damage, Muscular injuries, Arthritis, Infectious diseases and Congenital joint abnormalities.

2. How to stop joint pain due to age?

Answer – We can delay joint pay due to age by adopting Moderate Exercise, Adequate Rest, Healthy Nutrition and avoiding excess sugar, salt, processed food and alcohol.

3. What is the best treatment for joint pain?

Answer – The best treatment for joint pain is rest, ice, compression and elevation of the affected joint in terms of self-care. 

4. What foods cause joint pain?

Answer – Sugar, Alcohol, Processed Food, Salt, Processed Meat, and Gluten-rich food.

5. What foods to avoid in joint pain?

Answer – Sugar, Alcohol, Processed Food, Salt, Processed Meat, and Gluten-rich food.

6. Will drinking water help in relieving joint pain?

Answer – There is no scientific evidence that drinking water relieves pain though it can keep the joint sufficiently hydrated to ease inflammation.

7. Is sunlight good for joint pain?

Answer – Yes, sunlight is good for joint pain. Though they don’t help reduce inflammation, they improve muscle health.