The unverified and unwarranted information about pregnancy preventive measures often becomes overwhelming for couples who are planning birth control. Such things mislead people into believing that contraception is harmful and dangerous to maternal health. The spread of misconception triggers anxiety, stress among the patients, and distrust in the clinical solutions of birth control and family planning. For a long time, the lack of awareness and ignorance about family planning had been the cause of reluctance and resistance among the masses in availing of the benefits of these contraceptive measures. Contraceptive methods have witnessed a profound transformation in sophistication, safety, and effectiveness. However, there are many myths still prevailing about birth control methods, and in particular, the Intrauterine devices that need to be dispelled for good.

What is an intrauterine device?

As a contraceptive method, an Intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the safest and effective methods of preventing pregnancy in women. It is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method for avoiding pregnancy. The device is small and T-shaped and is inserted in the woman’s uterus to prevent her pregnancy. Removed any time when the woman wants to become pregnant, IUD has a string at the bottom that extends to the vagina, enabling the health provider to remove the device when required.

IUD insertion is a safe and simple procedure of a few minutes in which the healthcare professional uses a speculum to widen and examine the patient’s vagina and insert the IUD. 

These devices could be Copper IUDs or Hormonal IUDs. Copper IUDs release copper ions into the uterus and act as a spermicide by killing the sperm in the uterus. Hormonal IUDs release a synthetic hormone, the progestin-like hormone Levonorgestrel (LNG), similar to the progesterone hormone secreted by the woman’s reproductive system, preventing ovulation.  

Myths and Facts About Intrauterine Devices

Myth –  IUDs cause abortion and, hence, end pregnancy.

Fact–  IUDs do not cause abortion. They are contraceptives and not abortifacients.
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy when the embryo or fetus is removed. 
IUDs are devices that prevent pregnancy. They either act as spermicides, killing the sperms, or thickening the cervical mucus and preventing the sperms from entering the uterus. So, it prevents the fertilization of the eggs.

Myth – IUDs are unsafe and harmful to maternal health, with side effects and chances of infection, cancer, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Fact –  IUDs are a safe and effective method of contraception. 
Gone are those days when IUDs did carry the chances of pelvic infection. New devices do not carry such risks of infection. Moreover, hygiene awareness and access to hygienic medical facilities and methods have contributed to reducing this infection risk. It may be noted that IUDs may not prevent infection but do not cause it. Proper device insertion helps avoid infection, perforation, and expulsion. 

IUDs do not cause cancer in healthy women, nor does it increase the risk of STDs. The chances of STDs are higher in sexually active women who do not use IUDs than those using them.

Myth– IUDs cause infertility or miscarriage post-removal.

Fact- IUDs are safe, reversible, long-acting contraceptive methods that women can at any time stop using, if they want to become pregnant. IUDs do not cause infertility or miscarriage in women after their removal. In the absence of proper hygiene care, a woman may develop pelvic inflammatory disease. If the condition is not treated timely, there are chances of infertility. However, such cases are rare.

Due to improper IUD insertion, if, in the rarest of cases, a woman becomes pregnant and the IUD is left in the uterus during pregnancy, there may be a chance of preterm delivery or miscarriage.

Myth–  It affects the sex life by causing inconvenience during intercourse.

Fact– IUDs provide relief from the stress and worries of getting pregnant and hence have a sex life stress-free and enjoyable. IUDs do not cause inconvenience in the sex life, discomfort, or pain during intercourse, nor do they get displaced due to intercourse.


IUDs are safe and effective when appropriately inserted. They are long-acting and reversible and can be removed when needed. The proper insertion of an IUD is the condition precedent to the successful and safe prevention of pregnancy. All the myths surrounding its use need to be dispelled and discouraged to ensure that more women use this method for safe and effective contraception. Maternal health and safe childbirth are paramount. To enable an informed decision, consult your doctor before planning birth control, who can address all your concerns and questions relating to contraception. 


While planning parenthood, caring for a woman’s reproductive and sexual health should be paramount for every couple. Family planning means timing one’s pregnancy and the subsequent, with proper spacing between pregnancies. It could be to prevent pregnancy or treat infertility in women.

Prevention of pregnancy in women could be achieved through various contraceptive methods that may include implants, intrauterine devices (IUDs), use of oral contraceptive pills, sponges, injectables, condoms, patches, vaginal rings, male and female fertilization, and fertility awareness to name. These methods are long-acting reversible, short-acting reversible, or permanent methods.

This blog discusses one such contraceptive method, the IUD insertion procedure, and how women planning an IUD insertion should prepare themselves and what they can expect from the procedure to arrive at an informed decision and remove any apprehension.

How to Prepare for IUD Insertion?

Though a simple and safe contraceptive method with a short procedural time, women undergoing IUD insertion may experience anxiety and stress with a host of questions about the pros and cons of the procedure, which is normal. It is better to talk with the healthcare provider to address this concern and ensure a healthy state of mind while preparing for the treatment. One needs to know the following to make an informed decision about the procedure.

What is an IUD?

An intrauterine device is a small T-shaped birth control device an obstetrician, gynecologist, or healthcare professional inserts in the woman’s uterus to prevent her pregnancy. It is one of the long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARC). An IUD can be removed anytime a woman wants to conceive or stop using it. An IUD has a string at the bottom that extends to the vagina, enabling the health provider to remove the device when required.

What are the different types of IUDs?

The IUDs come in two types- A copper IUD and a hormonal IUD.

  • Copper IUDs – Copper IUDs release copper ions into the uterus. This copper acts as a spermicide. The IUDs are solely used for contraceptives and contain no hormones.
  • Hormonal IUDs- Hormonal IUDs release progestin-like hormone, levonorgestrel (LNG), a synthetic form of progesterone hormone that prevents ovulation. With no egg, sperm cannot contribute to fertilization. In cases of chance, the body ovulates, and this hormone thickens the cervical mucus, thus preventing the sperm from reaching the egg for fertilization. These IUDs also help in controlling menstrual bleeding or cramps.

The difference between the progestin-like hormone LNG and progesterone is that LNG is an artificial hormone similar to progesterone. Progesterone is a steroid hormone secreted by a woman’s reproductive system.

How does IUD insertion work?

IUD insertion is a simple procedure to insert an IUD in a woman’s uterus who is planning contraception. The professional healthcare provider uses a small speculum, an instrument to widen the vagina walls to examine and insert an IUD. The procedure takes a few minutes and may cause a little pain to the woman undergoing it while the procedure is taking place. Patients may experience varied levels of pain.

Know if you are the right candidate for the treatment

Pregnant women or women with a history of vaginal or cervical cancer, vaginal infection, or sexually transmitted infection (STI) cannot have IUD insertion. Those with cardiovascular health issues must inform their doctor before planning an IUD. The healthcare provider may, if required, ask for a pregnancy or STI test to know if one is eligible for IUD insertion.

How to address anxiety?

Working with a healthcare professional for help and guidance to ease and relieve stress through proper education and consultation will make the procedure less painful and more successful.

What to Expect from IUD Insertion?

Understanding what to expect from the treatment before going to the doctor or the clinic is advisable to have a stress-free and relaxed mindset to avoid unresolved questions and related anxiety. In the case of IUD insertion, one may expect the following-

A simple procedure

IUD insertion is a simple procedure that takes a few minutes. IUDs can be inserted only by a healthcare professional.

Several benefits

IUDs have the following benefits: –

  • IUDs are safe and effective contraceptive methods with a high success rate.
  • They are cost-effective and reversible options. One may get them removed when deciding to become pregnant.
  • They are easy to use without interfering with the routine activities.
  • They are less bothersome than contraceptive oral pills since once inserted, one does not have to worry about adhering to any regular timetable of having contraceptives.

Some side effects

Some of the expected side effects of IUDs may include-

  • Headaches, mood swings, nausea, breast tenderness, in the case of hormonal IUDs.
  • Initial changes in menstrual bleeding that may go away after some time.
  • Painful periods and an increase in bleeding with copper IUDs.
  • With hormonal IUDs, ovarian cyst growth is also expected in some cases when women ovulate or release an egg every month that does not fertilize.
  • Irregular periods and frequent spotting are expected in cases with hormonal IUD insertion, during the first few months.

Prevent pregnancy but do not protect against STIs

IUDs only protect against pregnancy; hence, one must use condoms to protect oneself from STIs.

Safe and effective

Copper IUDs are effective immediately upon their insertion. The effectiveness of hormonal IUDs depends on where one is in their menstrual cycle. Till the hormonal IUDs provide protection, one must use alternative control methods.


Intrauterine devices are safe and effective measures to prevent pregnancy, ensuring a healthy reproductive and sexual life for women. As a long-acting reversible contraceptive, they provide a long-term birth control solution until removed. For a successful and satisfying medical outcome of the procedure, every patient must stay informed and be aware of the treatment, the types of IUD options, how the device works, the associated risks and benefits, the pre and post-procedural care, the preventive measures if any, and any issue of concern relating to the procedure and/or the device.


The Early Days of Pregnancy Testing

The earliest methods of detecting pregnancy were crude and unreliable. For instance, in ancient Egypt, women would urinate on barley and wheat seeds to determine whether they were pregnant. If the seeds sprouted, it was believed that the woman was pregnant. Similarly, in ancient Greece, women would observe changes in the colour and appearance of their urine to determine if they were pregnant.

It was in the early 20th century that the first recorded pregnancy test was developed. In 1928, two German physicians named Selmar Aschheim and Bernhard Zondek discovered that injecting the urine of a pregnant woman into a female mouse would cause the mouse’s ovaries to enlarge.

In 1931, the first commercial urine-based pregnancy test was introduced, called the “Rabbit Test.” This test involved injecting a woman’s urine into a female rabbit and observing changes in the rabbit’s ovaries.

However, the rabbit test had many limitations, including being time-consuming and requiring skilled technicians. It also had a relatively high rate of false positives and false negatives. As a result, it wasn’t until the 1960s that a more reliable and practical urine-based pregnancy test was developed.

The Modern Pregnancy Testing Kit

In the 1970s, the modern home pregnancy testing kit was introduced. These kits are based on the same principle as the urine-based pregnancy test but are much easier to use and more reliable. Home pregnancy tests are designed to detect the presence of hCG in a woman’s urine. They use antibodies that bind to the hCG hormone, causing a reaction that produces a colour change or a line on the test strip.

Home pregnancy test kits are very easy to use. A woman must urinate on the test stick or the strip and then wait for the results. Most home pregnancy tests can provide accurate results within a few minutes. These tests are relatively inexpensive and widely available in pharmacies and online stores.

The reliability of home pregnancy tests has improved significantly since their introduction. Most tests can detect hCG levels as low as 20-25 mIU/mL, about the level at which a woman would miss her period. However, false negatives can occur if a woman tests too early or has low levels of hCG. False positives can occur if a woman has recently had a miscarriage, is taking fertility drugs, or has certain medical conditions.

Advancements in Pregnancy Testing

Pregnancy testing technology has witnessed significant development recently. The introduction of early pregnancy testing is one. Early pregnancy tests can detect hCG levels as low as 6-10 mIU/mL, which is about a week before a woman’s missed period. These tests are especially useful for women who are trying to conceive.

Advancement in pregnancy testing has been the use of digital tests. Digital tests use the same technology as traditional home pregnancy tests, but the result is displayed on a digital screen instead of a line or colour change.

Despite the availability of home pregnancy testing kits, it is essential to note that healthcare professionals still play a crucial role in pregnancy testing. Doctors can perform more accurate and reliable tests, such as blood tests. Healthcare professionals can also support and advise women who may be uncertain or anxious about the home pregnancy test results.

The evolution of pregnancy testing has come a long way, from crude and unreliable methods to modern home testing kits. The introduction of the urine-based pregnancy test and, later, the home testing kit has made it easier and more convenient for women to detect pregnancy. 


Understanding Ovulation and Fertility

The term ovulation pertains to the discharge of a mature egg from the ovary, which occurs approximately once a month. The egg travels through the fallopian tube, waiting for sperm to fertilise it. The fertile window is when a woman is most likely to conceive. This window lasts about six days, including five days preceding the ovulation and the day of ovulation.

Hormones play a vital role in fertility. The follicle-stimulating hormone helps to stimulate the growth of follicles in the ovary, which contains the eggs. Luteinising hormone (LH) surges just before ovulation, triggering the discharge of the egg from the follicle.

The Role of Data in Fertility Tracking

  • Accurate Timeline : Fertility tracking involves recording information about menstrual cycles, basal body temperature, and cervical mucus changes. Ovulation test kits can provide additional information about the surge in LH that occurs just before ovulation. Tracking this information can help determine the fertile window more accurately. For example, if a woman’s cycle length is typically 28 days, she can predict that ovulation will occur on day 14. However, if she tracks LH surges, she can pinpoint ovulation more accurately and optimise her chances of conceiving.
  • Better Reproductive Health : Interpreting and using the data effectively is also crucial in optimising reproductive health. For example, couples can use the recorded data to make lifestyle changes, such as improving diet and exercise, to increase their chances of conception. The data can also help identify potential fertility issues, prompting couples to seek medical advice when necessary.
  • Identify Irregularities : Furthermore, fertility tracking can help identify irregularities in menstrual cycles and ovulation, which could indicate underlying health issues. For example, a consistently short luteal phase (the duration between ovulation and the start of menstruation) could indicate a hormonal imbalance or other health issues that could impact fertility.

Other Factors That Can Impact Fertility

Lifestyle factors like excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and poor diet can impact fertility. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can improve fertility and increase the chances of conception. Certain medical conditions, such as PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome, can impact fertility. It is recommended to seek medical advice if you are unsuccessful in conceiving after a year of trying.

Several treatment options are available for infertility, including fertility drugs, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). These treatments can help women who are struggling to conceive.


In conclusion, ovulation test kits are a valuable tool in fertility tracking. By tracking data, women can optimise their chances of conceiving and improve their reproductive health. However, it is essential to note that several lifestyle factors and medical conditions can impact fertility. Therefore, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and seeking medical advice when necessary can also increase the chances of conception.


Q: What are ovulation test kits, and how do they work?
Ovulation test kits are tools that measure the level of luteinising hormone (LH) in a woman’s urine. LH surges right before ovulation, so by measuring the level of LH in the urine, the kits can predict when ovulation is likely to occur. This information can help pinpoint the most fertile days in a woman’s menstrual cycle and increase the chances of getting pregnant.

Q: Which lifestyle factors can affect fertility?
 Several lifestyle factors can impact fertility, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress. Maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, reducing stress, and avoiding harmful substances such as alcohol and tobacco can help optimise reproductive health and improve fertility.

Q: I have irregular periods. What’s the best time to test?
This makes it harder to predict when to start testing ovulation kits. If your cycle is irregular and varies by a few days every month, take the average of the last 3 months. Count 12 days from the first day of your period and then take the test.

Q: When should I seek medical advice for fertility issues?
 If you have been trying to conceive for over a year and have not succeeded, seeking medical advice is essential. Additionally, suppose you have irregular menstrual cycles, a history of sexually transmitted infections, or other health issues that could impact fertility. In that case, it is crucial to talk to a doctor.

Q: How can interpreting data effectively improve reproductive health?
 Effectively interpreting the data can help couples make informed decisions about lifestyle changes that can optimise reproductive health, such as improving diet and exercise. Additionally, interpreting data can help identify potential fertility issues, prompting couples to seek medical advice when necessary. Using data to form decisions, women can increase their chances of conception and improve overall reproductive health.

Factors That Can Cause False Positives

A false positive pregnancy test result is when the test indicates that you are pregnant when you are not. Several factors can cause a false positive pregnancy test result, such as:

  • Chemical pregnancy: It is a very early miscarriage that occurs before the foetus can be seen on an ultrasound. However, in some cases, the body still produces enough human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to register a positive pregnancy test result, even though the pregnancy is not viable.
  • Medications: If you are being treated for infertility with hCG-containing drugs. Other infertility treatments and hormone-based contraceptives. However, if you have recently stopped taking hormone-based contraceptives or if you are having infertility treatment, your period may be irregular and cause you to take the test early. If you have recently been pregnant or had miscarriage, you can have false positive results because of the hCG hormone still there in your body. Certain medications, such as fertility drugs, can cause false positives by increasing hCG levels in the body.
  • Evaporation lines: Evaporation lines can sometimes appear on a pregnancy test if the test is not read within the recommended time frame. These lines can be mistaken for False positive results, even though they are not.

 It is essential to follow the instructions on the pregnancy test kit carefully and read the results within the recommended timeframe to avoid false positives. In addition, if you are taking any medications that could affect the results, speak to your healthcare provider before taking a pregnancy test

Factors That Can Cause False Negatives

A false negative pregnancy test result is when the test indicates that you are not pregnant when you are. Various factors can lead to a false negative pregnancy test result, including:

  • Taking the test too early During the early stages of pregnancy, your hCG levels may not be detectable as they may be too low. Therefore, taking a test too early can result in a false negative.
  • Diluted urine Drinking too much water or other fluids can dilute your urine, affecting the test’s accuracy.
  • Expired test kit Using an expired pregnancy test kit can also result in false negative results.
  • Incorrect usage of pregnancy test kits Not following the pregnancy test kit instructions or incorrectly using the kit can also affect the accuracy of the results.

Taking the test at the right time is essential to avoid false negatives. Some of the latest pregnancy tests are designed to detect hCG levels up to five days before your next expected period date. If you have irregular periods or are unsure when to take the test, ask your healthcare provider for advice. It is also essential to use the first-morning urine for the most accurate results.

What to do if You Suspect an Inaccurate Result

If you suspect that a pregnancy test result may be inaccurate, there are a few steps you can take. These include:

  • Retake the test: If you took the test too early or did not follow the instructions correctly, retaking the test may give more accurate results.
  • Use another test kit: If you suspect that the test kit you used may have been expired or faulty, using another kit may help to confirm the results.
  • Consult a doctor: If you are experiencing other pregnancy symptoms or are unsure how to interpret the results, it is vital to speak to your healthcare provider for advice.


Pregnancy home test kits are convenient and easy to confirm pregnancy. Still, it is important to understand that they are not always 100% accurate. False positives and false negatives can occur for a variety of reasons. It is essential to follow the instructions on the kit correctly to get accurate results from a pregnancy test. If you suspect a test result may be inaccurate, speaking to your healthcare provider can help confirm the results.