The most special moment of life for a woman and the loved ones, is when a new life is brought into the world. Giving birth to a child is sacred and bringing a healthy child in the world holds utmost importance, ensuring safety to the mother’s health as well. Maternal health needs to be taken care of during pregnancy and pre and post childbirth. Despite medical advancements and progress, death of women during and following pregnancy and/or childbirth is at a strikingly high rate with approx. 28700 deaths reported in 2020. Healthcare professionals have an active and responsible role in ensuring a safe and healthy delivery experience for the mother and child.

The decision to deliver a child through vaginal delivery or caesarean section depends on various factors that a healthcare professional has to consider in the best interest of the mother and the offspring. Though, generally vaginal delivery is considered safe, advisable, and preferred option for delivery, many a times conditions might not warranty a safe delivery. In such an event, a caesarean section becomes necessary.

Continue reading this blog to know more about the factors that determine and contribute in deciding caesarean section as the best option for child delivery.

What Is a Caesarean Section (C-Section)?

C-Section is a surgical procedure for a delivery of a child through an incision in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Unlike vaginal delivery, one can plan and schedule a surgery. The incision made could be either vertical (the incision is from the belly bottom to the pubic hairline) or horizontal (the incision is across the pubic hairline).

Factors Determining the Need for Surgical procedure

C-Section could be either a medical need to avoid any risks and complications to the mother and child, or elective and scheduled as a preferred choice. The healthcare professional may decide to have a C-Section in the following conditions.

  • Stalled labour- Delay in labour, also called prolonged labour, is when the mother is unable to progress with the delivery once gone into labour, either during the first phase or the second. The condition could be either the cervix (a canal connecting the uterus and the vagina) that starts to open but does not open fully or when the baby does not move down the canal, even after the cervix is opened.
  • Fetal distress- When the baby does not get enough oxygen, that may result in the heart rate slowing down below the healthy fetal heart rate.
  • Abnormal fetal positioning- Head-down or head-first toward the canal is the ideal condition for a normal delivery. However, at times the babies may have a breech (feet towards the canal) or transverse (shoulder or side first towards the canal) position.
  • Cord prolapses- When the umbilical cord slips through the cervix and into the vagina before the baby enters the birth canal. This creates pressure on the cord depriving the baby of blood flow, that may result into an emergency situation requiring a C-section to save the life of the baby.
  • Health issues- Health issues of the baby at the time of birth, like congenital heart diseases, or excess fluid in the brain require a caesarean to avoid risk to the baby. Similarly, any issue with maternal health as gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, heart diseases require a C-section surgery.
  • Multiple babies- The need for C-section arises in cases of multiple babies, there are more chances of prolonged labour, abnormal positioning of the fetal or one or more large babies.
  • Placenta issues- Placenta (a structure that develops in the uterus that enables the exchange of oxygen and nutrients between the mother and the fetus). At times the placenta may cover the part or whole of the birth canal (placenta previa) or it may prematurely get detached from the uterus before childbirth. In either case, caesarean delivery becomes necessary.
  • Previous C-Section- Previous caesarean is one of the reasons, the mother may not be able to have a normal delivery the second time. However, this does not necessarily mean that one has to go through C-section surgery. A normal delivery may be possible if the health of the mother shows low-delivery risks.


Before planning a C-section, one must consult the doctor and stay informed about the why and what to expect during the procedure. Any queries and concerns regarding the procedure must be asked to ensure that they are addressed satisfactorily. All the myths surrounding the need for C-section surgery be removed through awareness about pregnancy and related matters.

A surgical procedure might be a need in certain circumstances for a safe childbirth. However, like any surgical procedure its carries risks, that need to be taken into consideration, especially while opting for it as a preferred choice. Future pregnancies and maternal health often get affected due to C-Sections; hence the decision should be a well thought out decision. Stay informed and be aware of all the issues concerning a safe and healthy pregnancy and childbirth experience.


Cesarean Section | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Maternal health (

If you are reading this, chances are that you might have undergone a Caesarean Section or caesarean delivery and are looking forward to getting rid of the belly fat ASAP. Well, there is news for you. It’s going to take time. It cannot happen overnight. Your body has just produced another human being inside you and carried it for 9 months. That’s a lot to shed when it comes to reducing belly after a Caesarean Section.

If we do a comparison between Normal Delivery and Caesarean, Caesarean Delivery can be quite an experience on the body. They cause a major impact on your muscles in the abdominal area and the floor of the pelvis. Also, the body loses major quantities of blood during a Caesarean Delivery. During this process, you will gain lots of fat and accumulate a large quantity of fat in the abdomen area.

Now, this doesn’t mean that getting back in shape isn’t possible. There are a few things that you need to keep in mind if you are looking to do so after a C-Section delivery.

1)      Be patient: As soon as your baby is born, your hormones begin to alter, contracting your uterus. It requires at least 6 to 8 weeks for your uterus to take its original size. So, take all the time to nurture your body and give time to heal and let it come back in its original form. After all, patience is the key post a normal delivery or a Caesarean Section.

2)      Consult your doctor first: If you are firm on your decision of losing your belly fat, firstly consult your doctor before initiating any remedy. As per evidence, it is recommended to wait for at least 8 weeks to start any exercise or diet alterations. As eager as you might be to lose the weight right away, this will only cause complications if you rush into it and without a doctor’s advice. So, avoid home remedies post a Caesarean Section.

3)      Prefer breastfeeding your baby: Breastfeeding will cause you to automatically get rid of excess weight after delivery, be it Normal or a Caesarean Delivery. The process involves burning calories i. e. around 250 to 500 calories/ day.  Also, breastfeeding contracts the body which also involved shrinking the uterus to some extent.

4)      Avoiding consuming processed foods: After caesarean deliveries, it is best to not consume processed foods like chips, fried foods, baked items etc. Because when you consume processed food, it not only affects your body but also your baby’s diet especially if you are beast-feeding. If you constantly keep consuming junk food post-Caesarean Delivery, you ingest chemicals in your body which is harmful to both – you and your child.

5)      Prefer eating whole foods: Wondering what to consume if not junk? Well, the answer is pretty simple – WHOLESOME FOOD! Pulses, grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts etc. are considered best after a normal or a Caesarean Section. This provides you with the nutrition that you and your baby require. You both benefit from it. You feel good, you feel active and full, your baby is growing healthy and you are on a way to a healthy life after a Caesarean Delivery or a normal delivery.

6)      Initiate walking to lose weight: A simpler form of exercise which is best for normal delivery or caesarean is walking. It doesn’t exert any pressure on your body after a Caesarean Delivery. It is easy and highly recommended because it keeps your heart pumping and keeps the blood circulation good. You can always step out with your friends and family to get some fresh air and take some time off from the routine. It also helps you reduce the belly fat and helps you get back to a good shape slowly if done steadily.

7)      Opt for mild Exercises: Before you start this, it is recommended to wait for 6-8 weeks post a Caesarean Delivery. You can start with basic yoga and exercises – sphinx pose or a bridge pose which will help strengthen your pelvic muscles. It is best to do it under expert guidance to get the form correct and avoid any injury.

Childbirth is a miracle that everyone looks forward to. But sometimes, complications may arise and in place of normal delivery, a woman may need to opt for a Caesarean delivery.  Caesarean delivery or C-Section is a delivery operation where a surgical cut is made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus.

The decision to undertake a C-Section delivery depends on the doctor. If a medical professional feels it’s safer for the mother to undergo a caesarean surgery over normal vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery is avoided before 39 weeks of pregnancy for the child to have proper time to develop in the womb. But, in some acute cases, complications may arise and caesarean delivery will need to be performed before the 39 weeks. This is why pregnant women must undergo prenatal care when they’re pregnant so that the doctors can spot any complications beforehand.

In this surgical delivery, a cut is made in the skin and into the uterus at the lower portion of the abdomen of the mother. However, the cut in the skin and mostly, a transverse uterine cut is preferred in the majority of cases, due to good healing outcomes and also less bleeding. Also, it raises future chances for a vaginal birth. However, the type of cuts depends on the mother’s and the fetus’s conditions.

C-section delivery depends on case to case. As such, the doctor will decide whether to go for a horizontal cut, known as a transverse cut or opt for a vertical cut. In a transverse uterine cut, the surgeon makes an incision across the lower part of the uterus. Since these muscles do not contract during labor it is unlikely to tear. In a vertical cut, the doctor will make the incision that extends from the belly button to the pubic hairline.

In most cases, a transverse uterine cut is preferred because it leads to good healing outcomes and also lesser bleeding. It also raises the chances of normal vaginal birth in the future. But, the decision to do so will be in the hands of your doctor, as they know what is the safest option to undertake.

Now that we have a bit of a background on C-Section delivery, let’s see it’s different types.

Types of C-section

1)Planned C-section

As the name implies, a planned C-Section is one where the mother knows well in advance that her baby will be delivered via cesarean delivery on a particular date and likely won’t even go into labor. During a planned c-section, the doctor will take 10 to 15 minutes for making the incision and delivering the baby. Throughout the pregnancy, the mother can be better prepared for what is to come.

2) Emergency C-section

Unlike a planned delivery surgery, an emergency C-section will be a decision that is made by the doctor on the spot. If complications occur during the delivery, the doctor will opt for this surgical procedure. During an emergency C-Section, the baby will be delivered in about 2 minutes from the time the doctor makes an incision in the mother’s uterus.

This brings us to the most important question – Why does a woman need to undergo caesarean surgery?

Typically, a caesarean delivery is performed when complications from pregnancy make natural vaginal birth difficult or put the child or mother at risk. Sometimes caesarean delivery is planned or scheduled early in the pregnancy, but they are most often performed because of problems during labor.

Several conditions make a caesarean delivery a safer choice to deliver a healthy baby. These include:

  • A tangled umbilical cord: The umbilical cord, which connects the fetus to the uterus, may get pinched, or the fetus may have an abnormal heart rate.
  • Size of the head: A baby’s head can sometimes be too big for the birth canal or the baby may too large to travel through the cervix. At such times, a C-Section is needed.
  • Lack of contractions: At times, contractions may not open the cervix enough for the baby to move into the vagina for delivery. When this happens, the doctor may choose to make a surgical incision.
  • Multiple gestations:  When a woman is pregnant with twins or triplets, she may need to deliver via a C-section delivery
  • Previous caesarean delivery: In this case, the doctor may recommend a repeat caesarean delivery to avoid further complications.
  • Position of Foetus: The fetus is in the breech or transverse position. During these conditions, C-section might be the safest way to deliver a baby
  • Pre-existing conditions: If the mother has active genital herpes that could be transmitted to the baby, then the doctor may choose to go for a C-Section.
  • Early pregnancy complications

However, a cesarean delivery is an intensive procedure that requires a longer healing process than a vaginal delivery. Only opt for a CDMR (Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request) once a doctor provides a clear picture of the risks and side effects associated with the procedure.

What are the risks and side effects of caesarean delivery?

Caesarean deliveries are becoming a more common delivery type worldwide, but it’s still a major surgery that carries risks for both mother and child. Vaginal birth remains the preferred method for the lowest risk of complications. The risks of caesarean delivery include:

  • Bleeding: It can lead to a blood transfusion or having the womb removed.
  • Abnormal placental separation: Especially if a prior caesarean delivery has taken place.
  • Bladder or bowel injury can occur during caesarean delivery.
  • Uterine infection:  You might be at risk of developing an infection of the lining of the uterus because of a C-Section.
  • Surgical wound infection: The mother might be at an increased risk of an incision infection post a caesarean delivery.
  • Problems in passing urine after having a cesarean delivery.
  • Delayed resumption of regular bowel function.
  • Blood clot formation: Having a c-section might increase the risk of developing a blood clot inside a deep vein.

Not just the mother, even the infant can have complications. These include:

  • Surgical injury: A cut to the baby’s skin, caused during surgery. Most often, this is minor and heals quickly.
  • A higher risk of admission to the neonatal unit(an intensive care unit (ICU) specializing in the care of ill or premature new-born infants)
  • Breathing problems – This is more common if the C-section is performed before 39 weeks of pregnancy. Most breathing problems get better after a few days but some babies need to go into the neonatal unit.

So, should you be worried if you have undergone a C-Section?

Pregnancy in itself is a beautiful and memorable process. But for many women, especially those who are delivering for the first time, it may be a bit intimidating. So, if you have to undergo a C-Section, there isn’t much to be scared of. Both planned and emergency caesarean surgeries carry a certain amount of risk, but if you follow the advice of your doctor, many of these risks can be controlled and you will be able to enjoy the miracle of childbirth once the said risk passes.

Giving birth is a phenomenal thing.

The journey of pregnancy is one of the most memorable and fulfilling experiences one can have. If you have had to undergo a C-Section or Caesarean delivery, you know that an extra amount of caution will be required once you give birth. Every new mother deals with it in her way; in her own time. So, no fixed protocol will help every mother, but there are certain precautionary steps one needs to keep in mind post a C-section / Caesarean delivery.

Just like any other surgery, a C-Section delivery means that you need to give time for your body to heal properly. Doing so is not difficult if you follow a few steps diligently. So, if you have undergone surgery, here are a few tips you need to keep in mind.

A) Get Ample Rest

For you, the health of your infant will be of paramount importance. But, at the same time, you need to take care of your health as well. As C-section or Caesarean delivery is major surgery, you need to take ample rest to provide the required amount of time for your body to heal properly.  You will need to stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days after delivery, but beyond that, you will need up to 6 weeks to get healed completely. Till then, you only need to rest, apart from attending to your baby. The more you rest, the more quickly your body recovers – mentally and physically. Your health directly or indirectly affects your baby’s health. So, it’s important to take time and heal well.

B)  Take Extra Care of your Body

Just like any other surgery, putting stress on your body after a C-Section surgery is a bad idea. Now of course, with a baby in tow, being sedentary will not be an option for you. But there are a few things best avoided. Firstly, try not to climb any stairs as much as possible. Apart from this, make sure you do not lift any heavy objects. While a caesarean delivery has become commonplace, many people still don’t have a complete idea about it. So, avoid taking opinions on health from anyone but your doctor. Stay away from, any kind of home remedies and make sure you have your medicines (if any) as specified by your doctor. Your doctor may also prescribe light exercises after caesarean delivery. Follow it diligently.

C) Mental Health after C-Section Delivery

For women who have just delivered a child, mental health can be a sensitive issue. After a C-Section delivery, your body is ought to be fragile. With these challenges, suffering from post-partum depression can be a possibility. In case you are feeling depressed or unnaturally moody, there is nothing to be worried about. Reach out to your doctor or a mental health specialist. It is perfectly fine to experience postpartum depression after a C-Section surgery and by following the advice given by a trained professional, you will be able to manage it well.

D)      Pain Relief

After a C-Section delivery, if you suffer from any pain in your thigh, groin, back of the knee, or calf for a persistent period, do not ignore it. Go to your doctor, as they may prescribe certain medicines for you to help curb the pain. The medicines may differ from person to person depending on whether or not you are breastfeeding your child. Along with this, using a heating pad is also a good idea. Do not take medicines that are not prescribed by your doctor as they may interfere with your current course of treatment and cause further problems.

E)      Eat Well

Good nutrition is as important as resting during recovery and after a C-section delivery. It promotes speedy recovery. It is recommended to eat foods that are high in protein, vitamin C, and iron. Proteins help in the healing process; vitamin C helps fight infection and Iron builds immunity.  If you are a breastfeeding mother, you are the sole source of nutrition for your baby as well. So, you need to eat varied nutrition-rich foods to keep yourself and your baby healthy, stronger, and full. Don’t forget to consume plenty of liquids, preferably water. Drinking 4 glasses of low-fat milk or fortified juice helps you get enough calcium and increases the milk supply for your baby as well. Also, consuming vegetables imparts flavour to the breast milk and the baby also develops a taste of these vegetables later in their life.

Like we mentioned earlier, every woman has a different curve of healing after undergoing a C-Section delivery. While you follow simple tips like these, it is also important that you stick to the advice given by your doctor. Remember, this is also a good time to bond with your baby and experience all the joys that motherhood has to offer.

Lastly, even as you enjoy a series of firsts with your baby, keep an eye on their health as well. Post a C-Section delivery, your child too can experience some difficulties. So, speak to your doctor and keep an eye out for any abnormalities.

This new journey of motherhood brings in a lot of changes in your life. So, the best way to glide

through this is to be aware and healthy and never hesitate to ask for help from friends and family!

The process of pregnancy is both a wonderful one, as well as one that is filled with doubts and questions. The moment someone finds out they are set to be a parent, the health of both the mother as well as the child becomes equally important.

Most often than not, pregnancies occur without any complications. But, certain pregnant women will encounter complications, affecting them or their baby’s health. In some cases, chronic disorders in expecting mothers, occurring before becoming pregnant, are responsible for causing complications during pregnancy. Some events also occur at the time of delivery. Early diagnosis and prenatal caution can minimize further risk to you and your baby even with complications.

What are these complications?

Pregnancy symptoms and complications can range from mild discomforts to severe, sometimes life-threatening illnesses. It can be difficult for a mother to determine which symptoms are normal and which are not. Problems during pregnancy may include physical and mental conditions that affect the health of the mother or the baby. Hence, proper precaution and doctor’s guidance is mandatory. Some of the most frequent complications of pregnancy include:

  • Hypertension or high blood pressure:

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, occurs when arteries carrying blood from the heart to the body organs and the placenta are narrowed. During pregnancy, this can make it difficult for blood to reach the placenta, which provides oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. It also puts the mother at a higher risk of having a baby well before their due date. When such a premature delivery takes place, it is called a preterm delivery.

  • Gestational diabetes:

At times, when a woman is pregnant, her body may not be able to process sugar effectively. This leads to higher-than-normal levels of sugar in their bloodstream. When such a thing happens, a woman may contract gestational diabetes. But even if it occurs, it should not be a big worry because gestational diabetes usually gets resolved after pregnancy. Still, it can cause problems during pregnancy, so women need to keep an eye out for it.

  • Pre-eclampsia:  

When pregnant, it is pertinent a woman gets herself checked for Pre-eclampsia, which is also known as Toxemia. This condition generally occurs after the initial 20 weeks of pregnancy, and when it does, it causes symptoms such as hypertension or problems with the kidney. While Pre-eclampsia can lead to outcomes like preterm delivery, in some serious cases, it can even cause fatalities, so you must consult with your doctor and stay completely clear of it.

  • Pre-term Labour:

At times, a woman may go into labor much earlier than expected. Ideally, 37 weeks is what can be considered normal delivery time, and anything before it can be called preterm. Preterm delivery can put the infant at higher risk because certain organs like the brain and lungs may not have completely developed as yet.  At such times, the infant may need to be put in an incubator or an intensive care unit for a while, till it develops fully functioning organs.

  • Miscarriage:

A miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy during the first 20 weeks due to natural causes. Signs can include cramping, vaginal bleeding, or fluid or tissue passing from the vagina. It is recommended to contact your health care provider if you experience these signs at any point during pregnancy.

  • Stillbirth:

The loss of an infant after week 20 of pregnancy is called a stillbirth. Mostly, the cause of stillbirth is unknown. However, health conditions that can contribute to stillbirth include problems with the placenta or chronic health issues in the mother that affect the child.

  • Anemia:

It is a condition in which a woman has a lower than the normal count of healthy red blood cells. This makes it hard to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. Having anemia can make pregnant women feel tired and weaker than usual, which may lead to complications when the pregnancy advances.

  • Infections:

A variety of viral, bacterial, parasitic or sexually transmitted infections may occur during pregnancy and/or delivery which may lead to complications for the mother and the baby after delivery. Many of these infections can be prevented or treated with appropriate prenatal, pre-pregnancy along with postpartum follow-up care.

  • Hyperemesis gravidarum:

Extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester. Some women may experience more severe symptoms that last into the third trimester. It can lead to weight loss, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

  • Ectopic Pregnancy:

A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg settles and grows outside the uterus, generally in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg can’t survive outside the uterus. If left to grow, it may damage nearby organs and cause life-threatening loss of blood.

Can complications also occur during the time of delivery?

When a woman goes into delivery, certain pregnancy-related complications can arise. These include:

  • Breech position:

A baby is considered to be in the breech position when it is formed head-up in the mother’s uterus. This means the feet are pointed toward the birth canal and can complicate normal vaginal delivery a bit.

  • Placenta previa:

 It occurs when a fetus’s placenta partially or covers the mother’s cervix — the outlet for the uterus. It may cause severe bleeding during pregnancy and delivery.

  • Low birth weight:

Babies who are born with low birth weight carry an elevated risk of respiratory infections, cardiac infections, learning disabilities or problems with vision.

How can you prevent pregnancy complications?

Not all complications are preventable. Following these guidelines may help promote a healthy pregnancy and lessen the chance of high-risk pregnancy complications.

  • Attend doctor’s appointments regularly
  • Maintain a healthy diet
  • Quit smoking and drinking alcohol
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Take prenatal vitamins daily
  • Try Yoga and Meditation to stay fit

In the months of pregnancy, a lot of pregnancy complications can arise, even in healthy women. Most often than not, these health complications shouldn’t deter couples from planning for a child.

While pregnant, along with doctor visits, it is important to keep an eye on vital signs as well as any complications, no matter how small or inconsequential they seem. Stick to a regimen set by your doctor and while it may not resolve all complications, it will improve your chances of having a normal delivery which of course, will ensure your bundle of joy is as healthy as it is supposed to be!