Stay Healthy, Stay Fit


Imagine a scenario where the very bones that support your body’s structure and facilitate your every movement start deteriorating silently, leaving you in excruciating pain and impairing your mobility. Unfortunately, this is the harsh reality faced by those who suffer from avascular necrosis. This condition stealthily attacks the bones and joints, causing irreparable damage. But fear not, for in this article, we will delve into the depths of avascular necrosis, unravelling its enigma and shedding light on its symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

What is Avascular Necrosis? 
Avascular necrosis, also known as osteonecrosis, is a condition that affects the bones and joints, caused by a disruption in blood flow. The lack of blood supply leads to the death of bone tissue, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential joint damage. Avascular necrosis can affect joints such as the hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles. Therefore, understanding the symptoms of this condition is essential for early detection and effective management.

Symptoms of Avascular Necrosis
The symptoms of avascular necrosis can vary depending on the affected joint. However, there are common signs that individuals may experience. Joint pain and stiffness are some of the most prominent symptoms. This pain may worsen with weight-bearing activities and can restrict movement. One may experience limited range of motion and difficulty walking. Due to joint pain and stiffness, individuals may find it challenging to perform everyday tasks.

In the case of hip avascular necrosis, the pain might be felt in the groin area and can radiate to the buttocks or thighs. This can cause difficulty in walking or even standing for prolonged periods. Knee avascular necrosis may result in swelling and pain in the knee joint, making it challenging to bend or straighten the leg fully. Shoulder avascular necrosis can cause pain during arm movement and may limit the ability to lift objects. Ankle avascular necrosis can lead to pain, tenderness, and difficulty bearing weight on the affected foot.

Causes of Avascular Necrosis 
Avascular necrosis can occur due to various factors. One of the primary causes is an injury, such as a fracture or dislocation, which disrupts the blood supply to the bone. Diseases like sickle cell anaemia, lupus, and HIV/AIDS can also increase the risk of avascular necrosis by affecting blood circulation or causing inflammation. Additionally, certain medications, such as corticosteroids, can contribute to the development of avascular necrosis by interfering with blood flow to the bones.

Excessive alcohol consumption is another significant risk factor for avascular necrosis. Prolonged alcohol abuse can weaken bones and decrease blood flow, increasing the chances of developing this condition. Other risk factors include smoking, radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions that require organ transplantation.

Diagnosis of Avascular Necrosis 
Diagnosing avascular necrosis involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. First, the doctor will inquire about the symptoms experienced, medical history, and potential risk factors. Physical examination may involve assessing joint mobility, tenderness, and signs of inflammation.

Imaging tests play a crucial role in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis. X-rays can help detect bone structure changes and reveal bone damage areas. However, the early stages of avascular necrosis may not be visible on X-rays. The health provider may recommend advanced imaging techniques like MRI or CT scans. These tests provide detailed images of the affected area and can help determine the extent of bone damage.

Blood tests might also be conducted to rule out other underlying medical conditions that mimic avascular necrosis symptoms. These tests can help assess overall health and identify any underlying factors contributing to the condition.

Treatment of Avascular Necrosis
The treatment approach for avascular necrosis depends on multiple factors, including the affected joint, the stage of the disease, and the underlying cause. Early detection is crucial as it offers the best chances for successful treatment.

Non-surgical treatment options may be recommended for individuals in the early stages of avascular necrosis or those with mild symptoms. Medications can also help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

Physical therapy aims to improve joint function, reduce pain, and increase mobility. Therapeutic exercises and stretches can help strengthen the surrounding muscles, supporting the affected joint. In addition, assistive devices, such as crutches or canes, may be recommended to reduce pressure on the joint during weight-bearing activities.

Surgical intervention may be required in advanced stages or cases where non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief. Joint-preserving surgeries, such as core decompression or bone grafting, aim to improve blood supply and prevent further bone damage. In a few severe cases, joint replacement may be required to replace the damaged joint with a prosthetic one.

Lifestyle Changes and Self-Care for Avascular Necrosis 
In addition to medical treatments, lifestyle changes, and self-care measures can help manage avascular necrosis and improve overall health. Maintaining a healthy weight is crucial, as excess weight can stress the affected joints. In addition, following a balanced diet that includes adequate nutrients for bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, is essential.
Avoiding alcohol and smoking is highly recommended, as they can exacerbate the condition and hinder healing. Under a healthcare professional’s guidance, regular exercise can help strengthen muscles, maintain joint flexibility, and improve overall well-being. Low-impact activities like cycling or swimming are often recommended to minimize joint stress.

Avascular necrosis is a condition that can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Understanding the symptoms, causes, and treatment options is crucial for early detection and effective management. Timely medical intervention, lifestyle changes, and self-care measures can help control pain, improve functionality, and prevent the bones from further damage. If you experience persistent joint pain, stiffness, or difficulty in movement, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional.


Types of Dengue Test Kits

Several types of Dengue test kits are available to diagnose the disease. These include rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, i.e. (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Each test has its advantages and limitations, which we will discuss in detail.

1. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs)  

RDTs are simple, easy-to-use tests that provide rapid results within 15 to 20 minutes. They work by detecting the presence of dengue-specific antibodies or antigens in a patient’s blood. RDTs are designed to be performed at the point of care, such as in clinics or field settings, without requiring specialized laboratory equipment.  

Advantages of RDTs:  

  • Speed: RDTs provide quick results, enabling early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment.
  • Ease of use: RDTs are user-friendly and can be performed by healthcare providers with minimal training.  
  • Portability: RDT kits are portable and do not require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure, making them suitable for resource-limited settings.  
  • Cost-effective: RDTs are relatively inexpensive compared to other diagnostic methods, making them affordable for healthcare systems with limited resources.  

Limitations of RDTs:  

  • Sensitivity and specificity: This can vary depending on the manufacturer and the stage of the disease. False-positive or false-negative results can occur, requiring confirmation with other tests.  
  • Timing: RDTs may not detect the dengue virus during the early stages of infection since the viral load is low. Therefore, repeat testing may be necessary if dengue is suspected despite a negative RDT result.  
  • Limited serotype differentiation: RDTs may not differentiate between dengue virus serotypes, essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigations.

2. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Tests  
ELISA tests are laboratory-based tests that detect dengue-specific antibodies in a patient’s blood. They involve multiple steps and require specialized laboratory equipment. ELISA tests can differentiate between IgM and IgG antibodies, which helps determine the infection stage.  

Advantages of ELISA Tests:  

  • Sensitivity and specificity: ELISA tests have high sensitivity and specificity, especially when performed appropriately after symptom onset. 
  • Quantification: ELISA tests can provide quantitative results, allowing the measurement of antibody titers, which can help monitor disease progression or response to treatment.  
  • Serotype differentiation: Some ELISA tests can differentiate between dengue virus serotypes, which is valuable for surveillance and outbreak investigations.  

Limitations of ELISA Tests:

  • Turnaround time: ELISA tests require more time for processing compared to RDTs. Results may not be available for several days, depending on the laboratory capacity.  
  • Laboratory infrastructure: ELISA tests necessitate well-equipped laboratories with trained personnel, which may not be available in all healthcare settings, especially in resource-limited areas.  
  • Cost: ELISA tests are more expensive than RDTs due to the need for laboratory infrastructure and specialized reagents.  

3. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests  
PCR tests are highly-sensitive molecular diagnostic tests that detect the dengue virus’s genetic material (RNA) in a patient’s blood. PCR tests can accurately determine the presence of the virus and differentiate between different dengue virus serotypes. However, PCR tests are complex and require sophisticated laboratory equipment and trained personnel.  

Advantages of PCR Tests:  

  • Sensitivity and specificity: PCR tests are highly-sensitive and specific, providing accurate results even during the early stages of infection, especially when the viral load is low.  
  • Quantification: PCR tests can identify the specific dengue virus serotype, which is crucial for surveillance, monitoring, and outbreak response.  
  • Serotype differentiation: PCR tests can quantify the viral load, which helps assess the infection’s severity and monitor the response to treatment.

Limitations of ELISA Tests:

  • Cost and infrastructure: PCR tests are expensive and require well-equipped laboratories with trained personnel, limiting their availability in resource-constrained settings.  
  • Turnaround time: PCR tests typically take several hours, including sample processing and analysis. Rapid results may not be achievable, especially in remote or underserved areas.  


In conclusion, a timely and accurate diagnosis of dengue fever is essential for effectively managing and controlling the disease. Different types of dengue test kits, including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, are available for diagnostic purposes.  
Choosing the appropriate test depends on the specific requirements of the healthcare setting, the availability of resources, and the stage of the infection. Different test types may be necessary for accurate diagnosis and monitoring of dengue fever.  

It is crucial to continue investing in the development of diagnostic technologies that are more accessible, affordable, and rapid without compromising accuracy, to combat dengue fever effectively. This will enable early detection, prompt treatment, and efficient surveillance, ultimately contributing to preventing and controlling dengue outbreaks worldwide.  


Q: What is the advantage of using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for dengue fever diagnosis?   
 RDTs offer quick results, usually within 15 to 20 minutes, allowing for early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate treatment. They are easy to use, portable, and cost-effective, making them ideal for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings.  
Q: Are rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as accurate as other dengue test kits?   
While RDTs provide rapid results, their sensitivity and specificity can vary depending on the manufacturer and the stage of the disease. False-positive or false-negative results are possible, and confirmation with other tests may be required.  
Q: How do enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests differ from rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)?   
 ELISA tests are laboratory-based and can differentiate between IgM and IgG antibodies, providing information about the stage of the infection. They have higher sensitivity and specificity than RDTs but require longer turnaround times and well-equipped laboratories.  
Q: What is the advantage of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for dengue fever diagnosis?  
 PCR tests are highly-sensitive and specific, capable of detecting the genetic material of the dengue virus. They can identify the specific serotype of the virus and quantify the viral load, aiding in disease monitoring and assessing the severity of the infection.  
Q: Are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests widely available and affordable?   
PCR tests are complex and require advanced laboratory infrastructure and trained personnel, making them more expensive and less accessible in resource-constrained settings. They also take several hours to complete, which can delay results compared to rapid tests like RDTs.  

The Importance of Early Detection  

Early detection is critical in managing dengue fever effectively. When diagnosed early, healthcare providers can initiate appropriate treatment promptly, preventing the disease from progressing into a severe form. Conversely, late diagnosis can lead to complications and increase the risk of severe illness. 

Late diagnosis of dengue fever can result in the development of a disease known as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). DHF is characterised by bleeding, organ impairment, and, in severe cases, shock, while DSS is characterised by an immediate drop in blood pressure, which leads to organ failure and even death. These complications can be life-threatening, highlighting the urgent need for early detection.  

Healthcare providers can closely monitor the patient’s condition, provide appropriate medical care, and implement preventive measures to avoid complications by identifying dengue fever in its early stages. Early detection can also facilitate the implementation of mosquito control measures in the patient’s vicinity, preventing further transmission of the virus. 

The Role of Dengue Test Kits in Early Detection  

Dengue test kits are diagnostic tools designed to detect the presence of dengue virus antigens or antibodies in a patient’s blood sample. These kits offer several advantages over traditional laboratory tests, making them an invaluable tool in early detection.

  • Convenient and Portable : Compared to traditional laboratory tests, dengue test kits are more convenient. In addition, they are usually portable and can be used at clinics or hospitals, enabling healthcare providers to obtain rapid results without needing specialised laboratory equipment. This convenience is especially crucial in areas with limited access to well-equipped laboratories, allowing for quick and efficient diagnosis
  • Speedy Results :  Another advantage of dengue test kits is the speed at which results can be obtained. While traditional laboratory tests may take several hours or even days to yield results, dengue test kits can provide results within minutes. This rapid turnaround time allows healthcare providers to initiate appropriate treatment promptly, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.
  • Cost-Effective  : Moreover, dengue test kits are more cost-effective compared to traditional laboratory tests. The affordability and accessibility of these kits make them suitable for widespread use in areas with limited healthcare resources, facilitating early detection even in resource-constrained settings. 

Interpreting the Results  

Understanding how to interpret the results of dengue test kits is crucial in determining the appropriate course of action.

A positive result on a dengue test indicates the presence of dengue virus antigens or antibodies in the patient’s blood. This confirms the diagnosis of dengue fever, indicating an active infection. In such cases, healthcare providers can implement appropriate treatment measures, closely monitor the patient’s condition, and provide necessary supportive care.  

In addition to medical management, preventive measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of further transmission. For example, patients diagnosed with dengue fever should adopt precautionary measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as protective clothing, insect repellents, and eliminating stagnant water sources where mosquitoes breed. 

On the other hand, a negative result suggests the absence of dengue virus antigens or antibodies in the blood sample. However, it is essential to remember that a negative result obtained within the first few days of symptom onset does not rule out dengue infection completely. It is recommended to retake the test after a few days to confirm the absence of the virus.  


Early detection is pivotal in effectively managing dengue fever and preventing complications. Timely diagnosis allows healthcare providers to initiate appropriate treatment, closely monitor the patient’s condition, and implement preventive measures to minimise the risk of severe illness.

Through a combination of early detection, proper medical care, and preventive measures, we can work towards reducing the impact of dengue fever and protecting the health and well-being of individuals in affected regions worldwide.


Q: How does early detection of dengue fever contribute to preventing severe complications?  
A: Early detection allows healthcare providers to initiate prompt treatment, closely monitor the patient’s condition, and implement preventive measures. By intervening early, the risk of the disease progressing into severe forms such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is minimised, reducing the chances of organ impairment, bleeding, and shock. 

Q: What are the advantages of using dengue test kits compared to traditional laboratory tests?  
Dengue test kits offer several advantages over traditional laboratory tests. They are easier to use and can be used without needing specialised laboratory equipment. Additionally, they provide faster results, often within minutes, enabling healthcare providers to take immediate action. Moreover, dengue test kits are more cost-effective, making them accessible in resource-limited settings where traditional laboratory tests may be less feasible. 

Q: How can the results of dengue test kits be interpreted?  
 Interpreting the results of dengue test kits is essential for determining the next course of action. A positive result indicates the presence of dengue virus antigens or antibodies, confirming an active infection. In such cases, healthcare providers can implement appropriate treatment and closely monitor the patient’s condition. Conversely, a negative result suggests the absence of the virus. However, it should be noted that a negative result obtained within the first few days of symptom onset does not rule out dengue infection completely, and the test may need to be repeated. 

Q: What should be done after receiving a positive result from a dengue test kit?  
 After a positive result, following healthcare providers’ instructions for further management is crucial. This may involve rest, fluid intake, and symptomatic relief medications. Monitoring for any signs of complications is essential, and preventive measures to avoid mosquito bites should be implemented. Close communication with healthcare providers and adherence to their recommendations is vital to managing the disease effectively.  

Q: How do dengue test kits contribute to combating dengue fever on a larger scale?  
 Dengue test kits significantly combat dengue fever by enabling early detection, especially in areas with limited healthcare resources. Their portability, rapid results, and cost-effectiveness make them valuable tools in identifying cases early, facilitating prompt treatment, and implementing preventive measures. By employing these kits widely, the impact of dengue fever can be reduced, protecting the health and well-being of individuals in affected regions worldwide.  

Say ‘No to Fear and Yes to Timely Treatment’

A healed individual creates a healthy and happy society.

‘This needs to be operated,’ an opinion from the medical professional brings life-altering decisions in one’s life. The patient, caregivers, and their family must have seen this coming, but the setback is natural and inherent. The surgical intervention would help relieve the patient from the pain and discomfort associated with the specific health condition.

But, there is something beyond surgical care that needs attention and acknowledgment to make a recovery and healing stress-free and smooth for the patients, something that proves more therapeutic!

There are no two opinions about the significance and need for surgical intervention and care of an ailing patient. No words describe the importance and value of the contribution of our medical professionals in addressing the pressing healthcare problems of patients and society at large. However, poor health and related issues result in dependence, an inevitable condition forced upon a patient. The resultant stress, anxiety, irritability, fear of insecurity, helplessness, and the associated sense of low self-worth overwhelm the patient. The person often suffers from low self-esteem, lack of confidence, lack of interest in life, a sense of insecurity and/or other issues due to the inability to lead an independent everyday life.

Equally true is that the to-date ‘what -what not’ uncertainty clouding one’s specific health issues suddenly renders itself crystal clear with a ray of hope of relieving oneself with the associated pain, trauma, and discomfort through surgical intervention. Providing the cure for associated pain and discomfort, mobility, stability, security, and normalcy, improving the physical health of the patient, restoring natural functionality of the organs and appearance, restoring sensory loss, enabling enhanced patient’s quality of life through surgical intervention, is the ultimate goal of every surgeon.

But, the journey toward the patient’s overall well-being does not end with the successful outcome of the surgical intervention. Surgical intervention is a major step toward improving the patient’s physical well-being. Its successful outcomes guarantee that the procedure’s technical parameters and deliverables are met. Still, the patient’s well-being demands catering to their emotional and psychological needs beyond surgical care by making it indispensable to the whole standard of care. Acknowledging and addressing the emotional and psychological needs of the patients make a recovery easy and smooth for them. Unmet psychological distress often is the cause of poor life quality, slower and poor recovery, poor patient response and involvement in the treatment, and higher post-operative consultations.

Concerted efforts from the doctor, associated medical professionals, patient, caregivers, and patient’s family are needed to make a recovery faster and smoother. In recent times, healthcare professionals have recognized this need for patient care and have started instilling a holistic approach to treating patients.
As a doctor, treating patients with humanity and compassion is essential while being professionally competent and committed. The patient is more than just human flesh, organs, and body is what every doctor must understand.

Taking care of the emotional and psychological needs of the patients, lending a compassionate ear, and providing space to communicate their stress boosters contribute positively to the treatment, recovery, and healing of the patients. As with every surgery, pre and post-operative care and rehabilitation are also paramount. This is so because the patients generally suffer, in addition to the pain and discomfort associated with the surgery, from anxiety and stress that threaten to overwhelm them, as already mentioned.

The uncertainty of the outcome, worries relating to post-operative care and recovery, financial insecurities, and the socioeconomic implications of their dependence on near and dear ones are some of the associated challenges faced by the patient. In such an event, the emotional well-being of the patient is challenging. However, the must! To this end-

  • The first and foremost step is prioritizing one’s emotional well-being, starting with self-care. This goes alongside the recommended medications and therapies by incorporating meditation, mindfulness, and other healing modalities into the recovery regime.
  • Owning ownership to be a part of the health regime by the patient is what makes all the difference. Family and societal support through immediate surroundings and environment conducive to a healthy recovery of the individual also play an essential role in achieving the desired results.
  • The caregivers and immediate family’s unconditional acceptance, love, and care toward the patient with no room for contempt when dealing with the patient prove very therapeutic
  • Patient engagement through sharing medical conditions and treatment plans with the patient, and boosting their self-esteem and confidence by assuring them that we all are together, go a long way in making the healing process smooth and easy.

To conclude, a holistic approach involving a surgical intervention when recommended for a timely treatment takes care of the patient’s physical well-being. Still, self-care and support from the caregivers and the family are the icings on the cake! Celebrations of life are awaiting!

A holistic approach is what makes the difference!


After undergoing joint replacement surgery, many patients wonder how they can best follow up with their health and lifestyle after the procedure. The first few weeks are considered the most crucial time to ensure your recovery goes smoothly and that your new joints function optimally. Many assume that it’s more or less impossible to maintain regular physical activity after joint replacement surgery. However, this is not always the case. Changes in your lifestyle can be much easier than you think once you know what you should be doing instead of regularly doing before the surgery. Stay tuned for more tips on changing your lifestyle after joint replacement surgery.

Eat healthy, Get plenty of rest, and Exercise

Although you might be craving your favorite pizza after the joint replacement surgery, your body needs increased nutrients like protein, vitamins, minerals, and calories to heal and rebuild properly. This also applies to your new joints. Therefore, it’s important to eat healthily and get plenty of rest so you can recover faster and avoid complications. Exercise is also recommended as it keeps your joints healthy and helps to prevent future joint problems. One interesting fact about the human body is that the replaced parts are often stronger than the original ones. So, you can keep active and increase your joint strength while recovering from joint replacement surgery with no restrictions. Even better, you can do it while enjoying the benefits of improved joint function.

Staying hydrated is key

Dehydration is one of the most common health problems among joint replacement patients. It makes your joints more likely to develop inflammation and can even damage your new prosthetic joints. Even though you might feel fine now, your symptoms can worsen if you don’t drink enough water. Ensure you drink enough water throughout the day and keep a bottle by your bedside. 

Don’t forget about your core muscles 

It’s essential to keep your core muscles strong while recovering from joint replacement surgery. This will help to support your back while standing and climbing stairs and prevent dozing off while lying down. It is recommended to do exercises designed to strengthen your core muscles every day, prevent back pain, and improve your general health and well-being. You can find plenty of online exercises that you can do at home. 

Keep your feet up! 

Your feet are especially prone to injury during recovery from joint replacement surgery. Therefore, make sure you keep them elevated on a footrest, elevated stool, or in a foot gargle. Foot elevation is especially important when you sleep, as it will help prevent your legs from moving, which may lead to pressure sores. Also, you can use socks with arch supports to help to prevent arch collapse, which may lead to serious foot problems, including heel pain and ankle sprains.

What about swimming? 

Swimming after joint replacement surgery is not recommended, as it is a vigorous exercise that places a lot of stress on your new body parts, increasing the risk of infections and joint damage. Lower-impact activities are safe if you don’t push yourself too hard. Swimming is helpful for people suffering from joint pain or osteoarthritis, as it can be very beneficial for joint health, especially when combined with stretching exercises. However, it is advisable to avoid it after your joint replacement surgery.

Biking and other outdoor activities

You can still safely bike and participate in other outdoor activities like tennis, gardening and walking. However, it would be best if you were extra careful while doing these activities. Overdoing these activities can put too much stress on your joints and lead to joint damage.

Wrapping Up

Joint replacement surgery is one of the most significant life events that can happen to you. And while you’re recovering, you’ll want to ensure you stay as active and healthy as possible. As you can see, there are many ways you can change your lifestyle after joint replacement surgery to continue enjoying all the activities you love.


Can you live an everyday life after knee replacement?

Yes, most patients with knee replacement surgery can return to their everyday active life within weeks and resume activities that they had given up due to knee pain. However, one should not rush into any activity but take it slow. 

Is life better after knee replacement?

Yes, most patients after knee replacements have reported less knee pain and significant improvement in their overall quality of life. 

What activities are prohibited after knee replacement?

It is advisable to avoid running, jogging, hiking, any form of weight training, high-impact sports, skateboarding, or rollerblading. 

How long does it take to recover from a joint replacement?

After a joint replacement procedure, most patients obtain hospital discharge in less than five days. They can resume self-care and routine life and daily activities within six weeks. Ninety percent of recovery happens in 3 months, and some patients may take longer.