Stay Healthy, Stay Fit


Hepatitis – Types and Treatment

The meaning of Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is an umbrella term used to refer to a number of liver diseases, especially liver inflammation. The liver is a key organ in the body that filters toxins out of your blood and produces bile that helps digest fats. When there is damage or disease to the liver, these essential functions can be impaired and result in symptoms such as jaundice (yellowish skin), nausea, fatigue, poor appetite, dark-colored urine, lightheadedness, and loss of weight. Some types of Hepatitis are diagnosed with blood tests, while others require a physical examination and imaging scans. Depending on the type and severity of damage to the liver, different treatments may be necessary. If recognized early enough, most types of Hepatitis are highly treatable with medication and support from your doctor.

What is a Liver Disease?

Liver diseases are conditions that affect the liver. The liver is a complex organ that performs many essential functions. There are many different types of liver diseases. The most common liver diseases are caused by the liver’s chronic (long-term) inflammation. The most common causes of chronic liver inflammation are Hepatitis and alcoholism. However, another common cause of chronic liver inflammation is Hepatitis B.

Types of Hepatitis

There are many different types of Hepatitis. The most common viral classification types of Hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, C, and D. Other less common types include E, F, and G, but they are less common. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that about 354 million people all over the world currently live with chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis A – The Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes the Hepatitis A infection. It is common in developing countries and can be prevented with vaccination. It is often asymptomatic and may lead to liver damage over a period of weeks to months, with symptoms including fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.

Hepatitis B – Hepatitis B is caused by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and can be treated with medication. It is also common in developing countries and can be prevented with vaccination. It can be transmitted through blood and/or bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, or vaginal fluids. The initial signs of hepatitis B are similar to those of hepatitis A, with nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, and yellowish skin tone. Over time, chronic Hepatitis B can lead to liver damage, leading to signs such as unexplained weight loss, frequent blood in the urine, and pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen.

Hepatitis C – Hepatitis C is caused by the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and can be treated with medication. It is common in developed countries and can be prevented with vaccination. It can be transmitted through blood and/or bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, or vaginal fluids. The initial signs of hepatitis C are similar to those of hepatitis B, with nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, and yellowish skin tone. Over time, chronic hepatitis C can lead to liver damage, leading to signs such as unexplained weight loss, frequent blood in the urine, and pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen.

Hepatitis D – Hepatitis D is rare and is caused by a liver cell protein released by damaged liver cells caused by the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV). It is common in developed countries and can be prevented with vaccination. It can be transmitted through blood and/or bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, or vaginal fluids. The initial signs of hepatitis D are similar to those of hepatitis B, with nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, and yellowish skin tone. Over time, chronic hepatitis D can lead to liver damage, leading to signs such as unexplained weight loss, frequent blood in the urine, and pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen.

Hepatitis E – Hepatitis E is a waterborne infection caused by exposure to the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV). It is commonly found in places with poor sanitation due to ingesting fecal matter that comes in through water supply contamination. This acute infection can be hazardous for pregnant women.

Signs and Symptoms of Different Types of Hepatitis

As mentioned above, there are several types of Hepatitis and, therefore, several symptoms of each type. For each hepatitis type, symptoms can be mild or severe and short-term or long-term.

  • Hepatitis A – Symptoms can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and/or vomiting, abdominal pain, and yellowish skin tone. Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic and can lead to liver damage without symptoms. Even if a person has hepatitis A and is unaware of it, it is not usually dangerous, and most people are immune to it.
  • Hepatitis B – Symptoms can include yellowish skin, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, joint pain, and/or unusual bleeding. Some people with Hepatitis B develop more severe symptoms, including liver damage, liver failure, and/or chronic Hepatitis. It is possible to be infected with Hepatitis B and show no symptoms, which is called being “curable.”
  • Hepatitis C – Symptoms can include unexplained weight loss, frequent blood in the urine, pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen, and/or yellowish skin tone. It is not possible to test for Hepatitis C, so it is essential to be screened for it if you have risk factors, such as being an injection drug user (IDU).
  • Hepatitis D – Symptoms can include unexplained weight loss, frequent blood in the urine, and/or yellowish skin tone. It is not possible to test for Hepatitis D, so it is important to be screened for it if you have risk factors, such as being an injection drug user (IDU).

Difference between Acute and Chronic Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver. The liver is the organ that destroys all toxins in the blood and processes more than 500 different types of proteins. When the liver is damaged, the processes that destroy toxins and produce proteins are blocked, and toxins build up in the body. This is known as “jaundice,” which is common with Hepatitis. The most common type of Hepatitis is acute Hepatitis which is caused by a virus and generally resolves with no long-term damage. Chronic Hepatitis is less common, caused by a liver cell protein, and can have many different causes. It is often the result of a liver infection, autoimmune hepatitis, or alcohol use. Chronic Hepatitis can cause long-term damage to the liver and can lead to cirrhosis of the liver.

Treatment for Acute Hepatitis

There is no “cure” for Hepatitis, but preventive measures like timely vaccines and treatment can reduce the severity of symptoms and the chance of complications.

  • Hepatitis A : There are no medications that cure Hepatitis A. The main goal of treatment is to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications, such as dehydration from vomiting or not drinking fluids.
  • Hepatitis B : There are no medications that cure Hepatitis B. The main goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of developing chronic Hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis C : There is no medication that cures Hepatitis C. The main goal of treatment is to reduce the chance of developing liver disease and alleviate symptoms, such as abdominal pain, itching, or nausea.
  • Hepatitis D : There is no medication that cures Hepatitis D. The main goal of treatment is to ease symptoms, such as pain when passing a bowel movement, fatigue, and/or aching muscles.

Prevention of Hepatitis

The best prevention and treatment of Hepatitis is to get vaccinated against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, and there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C yet. The vaccines protect you against infection and reduce the risk of liver disease.


1. How do you know if you have Hepatitis?

Ans : When there is pain or tenderness in the abdomen, swelling of the liver, and any yellow discoloration of the skin or eyes, know that you could have a strain of Hepatitis.

2. Is Hepatitis an STD or a virus?

Ans : Hepatitis is a viral-borne infection though Hep-B and Hep-C can transmit through sexual intercourse.

3. What is the leading cause of Hepatitis?

Ans : Inflammation of the liver is the leading cause of Hepatitis.

4. Which Hepatitis is worse -Hep- A or Hep- C?

Ans : No hepatitis infection is good for the body, but chronic Hep-C can lead to liver damage.

5. What are the three types of Hepatitis?

Ans : The three types of Hepatitis are – Hep-A, Hep-B, and Hep-C.

6. What foods cause Hepatitis?

Ans : Cut fruits and vegetables left exposed for long periods and unclean drinking water contribute to the contraction of the Hepatitis infection.

7. What causes Hepatitis to spread?

Ans : Poor sanitation and hygiene contribute massively to the spread of Hepatitis.

8. What are the warning signs of Hepatitis?

Ans : The warning signs of Hepatitis are liver inflammation, overnight loss of appetite and weight, pain and tenderness in the abdomen, and yellow discoloration of the skin, nails, and eyes.

9. Who is most at risk for Hepatitis?

Ans : Pregnant women, children, and those with poor lifestyle choices like alcoholism, drug use, and liver infection are at risk for Hepatitis.

10. What is the first treatment for Hepatitis?

Ans : The first line of treatment for Hepatitis is antiviral medications, a stringent dietary program, the practice of good hygiene, and adequate rest and recovery.

11. Can Hepatitis be cured with antibiotics?

Ans : Hepatitis A can be cured without treatment, whereas Hep B and Hep C require a combination of antiviral medications and a dietary regime.


The amount of muscle and bone mass in a person is primarily determined by genetics. However, the amount of skeletal muscle and bone also changes with age. As we age, our muscle mass decreases while our bone mass remains relatively unchanged. A person’s muscle and bone mass are also affected by lifestyle factors like diet, physical activity, and other factors. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function is called sarcopenia or sarcopenia with aging. Bone mass loss is called osteopenia or osteoporosis. Aging is an irreversible process resulting from various anatomical and physiological changes leading to a substantial reduction in human capabilities, especially among the elderly.

What Is Muscle and Bone Mass?

Muscle and bone mass, a measurement of weight per unit of volume, is the sum or combined mass of skeletal muscle, tendons, and bones. The skeletal system consists of the bones and the connective tissues surrounding and supporting them. These tissues include the muscles, ligaments, and other skeleton components.

Symptoms and Causes of Muscle and Bone Mass Loss Occur in the Elderly

Muscle mass and bone mass loss are unavoidable aspects of aging. The muscles that support our skeleton are called muscle tendons; they attach to the bone via tendons, also known as aponeuroses. Their function is to increase the bone’s weight-bearing capacity to provide support in standing or walking. The symptoms of Muscle and Bone Mass include-

  • Weakness and loss of strength and stamina impacting physical activity
  • Reduced physical activity can cause further damage and shrink muscle mass

According to researchers, the causes include

  • Physical inactivity mostly
  • Reduced number of nerve cells sending signals from the brain to the muscles for movement
  • Less concentration of growth hormone, testosterone, and insulin-like growth factors.
  • Insufficient calories or protein for muscle mass sustenance
  • Decreased basal metabolic rate (BMR) causes our body to become less efficient at utilizing food for energy, which means decreased calorie intake to maintain the same level of activity, which is a reduced ability to turn protein into energy.
  • Poor Blood flow to the muscle and the effectiveness of the connective tissues diminishes and begins to release the bones from their muscles and other supporting structures, leading to muscle loss or sarcopenia and osteopenia progressing to osteoporosis with reduced bone density and increased rate of bone loss due to skeletal fragility.

Diagnosis of Loss of Muscle and Bone Mass in the Elderly

Whether one is physically active or not, muscle loss is a continuous process, just that the rate is higher in the case of physically inactive people. Loss of muscle and bone mass matters because it reduces strength and mobility. However, there is no specific test or level, or range that will help in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia can intensify as early as 65 or as late as 80. Left untreated, it contributes significantly to frailty and a poor quality of life. It is also a significant cause of falls and fractures among older people limiting their mobility and resulting in disabilities.

How to Measure Muscle Mass and Bone Mass Loss in the Elderly

Though there are many methods to measure muscle and bone mass loss, the Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement technique is considered the most accurate and effective method for measuring muscle mass and bone mass loss.

Boosting Your Basal Metabolic Rate

Your basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy your body uses at rest. To maintain your current weight, you need to consume enough calories to produce enough energy for your daily activities. Besides being determined by genetics, you can alter your BMR by lifestyle. For example, your BMR will decrease if you spend more time sitting down than standing up. There are many ways to increase your BMR, including:

  • Proper diet: The foods you choose to eat can affect your BMR. A diet high in processed foods, sugars, and fat will result in a lower BMR than a diet that is balanced and high in fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and fibre.
  • Regular exercise: A daily workout can increase your BMR.It takes energy to perform a workout, and that energy comes from your BMR.
  • Optimizing your body weight: Maintaining a healthy weight increases your BMR. You are likely to maintain a healthy body weight if you consume enough calories You are likely to maintain a healthy body weight if you consume enough calories to support the activity level of your age and sex.

Improving your diet to maintain your muscle mass

Although lifestyle factors can alter your BMR, your diet also affects your BMR. Studies show that a diet high in fruits and vegetables can increase your BMR and help you maintain your current weight. The type of food you eat affects your BMR significantly. A diet high in processed foods, sugars, and refined grains, such as white bread, contributes to a low BMR. A diet high in whole fruits and vegetables will improve your BMR and help you maintain your current weight.

How to Prevent Loss of Muscle and Bone Mass in the Elderly

  • Daily protein intake: An adult’s recommended daily protein intake is between 0.36 and 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight. The elderly require more protein than the general population because they are at a higher risk of losing muscle mass.
  • Daily micro-nutrient intake: In addition to improving a person’s diet to maintain muscle mass, it is also important to ensure adequate intake of micro-nutrients. Micro-nutrients are vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids essential for muscle and bone health.
  • Daily exercise: A daily workout, specifically high-intensity strength training or resistance training, can increase muscle mass, decrease bone loss risk, and improve overall health. Exercise increases bone density and improves bone strength.


As you age, your BMR and muscle mass will continue to decrease. To prevent substantial loss in muscle mass and bone mass, you need to increase your BMR while focusing on healthy lifestyle habits. To do this, you need to measure your basal metabolic rate (BMR) daily. This will help you identify which lifestyle factors contribute to a low BMR and take steps to improve them. Daily BMR measurement can be done via a device such as the metabolic rate monitor. By tracking your BMR throughout the day, you can identify which factors affect your BMR negatively and take steps to improve them.


At what age do bone and muscle loss typically begin?
Typically, most people reach their peak bone mass between 25 and 30. By the age of 40, bone and muscle loss typically begins.

What causes muscle and bone loss?
Physical inactivity causes disuse and leads to muscle and bone loss.

What causes muscle loss in the elderly?
Irreversible aging and slowing of limbs and physical activity lead to age-related sarcopenia or sarcopenia with aging.

What causes loss of bone mass in the elderly?
With age, the ability of the bones to absorb calcium and phosphate from your bones reduces, causing them to lose bone mass and grow weaker, leading to osteoporosis.

Can seniors regain and build lost muscle mass?
Yes, you can build and regain the loss of muscle mass as it is reversible, mainly with a combination of exercises like walking, resistance, and weight training to rebuild muscle and increase bone mass.

Can you increase bone density after 80?
Regular weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises can increase bone density and strength through the micro-architectural bone arrangement.


Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical regions, with almost a million cases of dengue infection every year. So far, dengue has only been found in travelers who have been to an area where dengue is common. It is a severe and debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by any of the four dengue viruses related to the same viruses that cause yellow fever and West Nile infection.

Causes of Dengue

People become infected with dengue when an Aedes mosquito bites them. The female Aedes mosquito feeds on blood from pigs and other animals before biting humans. People can get dengue if they have a weak immune system and are exposed to the disease. You have likely been exposed to the virus through an infected person you know or through exposure to an area where mosquitoes thrive, such as an outdoor swimming pool, river, lake, or woodland area.

Symptoms of Dengue

Although most people who are infected with dengue don’t experience any symptoms. Often symptoms of dengue are mistaken for other disease conditions,

  • some flu-like symptoms,
  • high fever of 104 F
  • headache,
  • pain behind the eyes,
  • swollen glands,
  • muscle pain,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • diarrhea,
  • abdominal pain,
  • rash.

In severe dengue cases, infected people can experience worse symptoms like

  • Persistent stomach pain,
  • Non-stop vomiting,
  • Severe internal bleeding, including bleeding from gums or nose and blood in the urine, stool,
    and while vomiting,
  • Fatigue and restlessness,
  • Difficulty in breathing,
  • A sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) or dengue shock syndrome,
  • Organ failure,
  • and even death.

Signs you should seek medical help for dengue

You should visit your doctor if you have a fever, headache, rash, or blood in your stool. You should also see a doctor if you develop blood in your urine. For dengue, blood in the urine is a sign of kidney infection.

Diagnosis of Dengue

It is challenging to diagnose dengue fever because of the confusion of signs and symptoms with other diseases like malaria, typhoid fever, chikungunya, or even the Zika virus.

Dengue diagnosis usually happens by asking the person if they have ever been to a place with a lot of mosquito activity. The symptoms may also help your doctor make a diagnosis. If your doctor suspects dengue, they may order blood tests to check for signs and antibodies in the blood that show that the person has been infected before. This dengue test is essential because there is a chance that someone who has never been infected with dengue can get the disease if an infected mosquito bites them.

Risk factors

A person runs a greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease if:

  • they live or travel in tropical areas
  • had dengue fever in the past
  • A pregnant woman with dengue can spread the virus to her unborn baby during childbirth. As a
    result, such babies run a higher risk of pre-term birth, low birth weight, or fetal distress.

Treatment of Dengue

There is no specific dengue treatment yet. The best treatment is prevention.

When a person is infected, it is imperative to prevent mosquito bites. However, this can be difficult during peak mosquito season, which varies by region.

  • You should wear insect repellent and avoid areas where mosquitoes thrive.
  • Avoid being outdoors as much as possible and stay in places where you can be protected from
    mosquito bites, such as indoors.
  • Experts recommend that you don’t go to the hospital if you have symptoms of dengue. The risk
    of infecting someone else is too significant.

While recovering from dengue fever, one must stay sufficiently hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids and not delay calling the doctor if there are signs and symptoms of dehydration like,

  • Reduced urination
  • Few or no tears
  • Dry mouth and lips
  • Confusion and fatigue
  • Cold and clammy extremities

There are OTC drugs to help reduce pain and fever, but in severe dengue fever cases, it is advised to avoid any OTC pain relievers, which can lead to bleeding complications. In such cases, the patient will need

  • Hospital care
  • Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte replenishment
  • Constant monitoring of blood pressure
  • Blood transfusion to replace the blood loss


Per the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling mosquito breeding and preventing mosquito bites are the main ways of preventing the spread of dengue fever. The following tips can come in handy,

  • Staying in well-screened and well-ventilated areas
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Use eco-friendly mosquito repellents
  • Avoid being outside during peak mosquito hours
  • Prevent mosquito breeding and disallow stagnant water bodies


Dengue is a severe disease that can lead to hospitalization and even death. But it is possible to prevent dengue with simple actions, such as wearing insect repellent, avoiding areas where mosquitoes thrive, and staying inside when outside during peak mosquito activity. In addition, people who are bitten by an infected mosquito can take steps to prevent transmission to themselves and their neighbors by practicing good handwashing.


Can You catch dengue twice?

A person infected with dengue can still get sick with the virus again, resulting in a secondary infection. While most people have no symptoms, a person who receives a second infection may have mild flu-like symptoms, such as fever and muscle pain. Therefore, it’s important to remember that anyone infected with dengue can get sick again even if they have had no symptoms.

What are the warning signs of dengue?

You should see a doctor if you have a fever, headache, rash, or blood in your stool and develop blood in your urine. For dengue, blood in the urine is a sign of kidney infection.

Is dengue a virus or mosquito?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease transmitted by the female Aedes mosquito, also vectors of yellow fever, chikungunya, and the Zika virus.

What are the three stages of dengue fever?

After the initial incubation period of 4-10 days, dengue fever follows the following three stages: febrile, critical, and convalescent.

How is dengue caused?

People become infected with dengue when an Aedes mosquito bites them. The female Aedes mosquito feeds on blood from pigs and other animals before biting humans. People can get dengue if they have a weak immune system and are exposed to the disease.

Introduction – What is joint replacement?

Anatomically, a joint is that part of the body where two or more bones meet, and there are different kinds of joints in the human body – like hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints. In the 1880s, a brilliant German doctor named Themistocles Gluck invented the first joint replacement. As we understand it, joint replacement is a surgical procedure where a damaged joint (due to age, accident, or condition) or parts of it are replaced with a prosthesis made of plastic, metal, or metal-based alloys or ceramic. It is designed to replicate the exact movement of a natural healthy joint. The most commonly performed joint replacements are that of the total knee and the hip, as well as partial knee resurfacing, wrist, elbow, shoulder, and ankle. Of course, joint replacement has come a long way, and we have robotic surgery taking the world of orthopaedic treatment to the next level with its precision and outcome.

What is robotic surgery?

Robotic surgery is an advanced form of surgery in which orthopaedic surgeons uses a patient’s computed tomography (CT) scans to build a 3D model of the patient’s bone. With that virtual model as a guide, the surgeon then uses the robotic arm to make accurate bone cuts and insert the components more precisely than conventional methods. It can be used to treat a variety of orthopaedic conditions, including bone deformities or fractures

Difference between robotic and conventional knee replacement surgery

Compared to conventional knee replacement surgery where human intervention is more prevalent, in an advanced robotic surgery, the degree of human intervention is minimal, and chances of human error are almost next to negligible. In such a scenario, robotic surgery enables the surgeon to execute the said procedure with utmost precision whether it is deformity correction or implant selection, and overall virtual simulation in the pre-planning stage to ensure a consistent and desired surgical outcome.

Advantages of using robots in the medical and healthcare field

Robotic surgery reduces the risk of infection and complications compared to conventional surgery. It also results in a shorter length of stay for the patient and quicker rehabilitation. With robotic surgery, the procedure takes less time and less tissue damage happens. Since robotic surgery is generally easier to learn and more efficient than conventional surgery, more procedures will likely be performed with robots in the future.

How and why are robots used in surgery?

Robotics is a technology that allows the surgeon to control a surgical robot that assists during the procedure in real-time. The surgeon can use the robot to perform and assist in various operations. The robot is programmed to perform the surgery exactly as per planning done by the surgeon and with greater precision.

Who is the ideal candidate for robotic knee replacement surgery?

Typically, patients who have knee arthritis consider knee replacement surgery when the quality of life is significantly affected because of pain and functional limitations. Of course, people differ in what they consider “significant” quality of life changes as well as their tolerance for pain. Some people consider knee arthritis a significant problem if it prevents them from participating in sports or taking extended walks. Other people do not consider knee arthritis to be a significant problem until pain interrupts sleep or affects their ability to do even simple activities, such as household chores.

Before recommending a knee replacement surgery, an orthopedic surgeon will conduct a thorough examination of your knee using X-rays and possibly an MRI to see inside of it. They will also go over your recent medical history before deciding whether or not surgery is necessary to go for knee replacement surgery.

Advantages of Robotic Knee Surgery

Advantages of robotic knee replacement

The main advantage of robotic knee replacement is the reduction in error, massive improvement in accuracy, the precision of the procedure, and the outcomes associated with it in the form of a lower infection rate. Robotic knee replacement surgery also has the following advantages.

Reduced recovery time – Patients who have had robotic surgery report a faster recovery than patients who have had traditional knee replacement surgery. Patients return to work or sports sooner than patients who have had traditional knee replacement surgery.

Fewer complications – Researchers attribute the low rate of complications in robotic knee surgery to there being less human intervention leading to less chance of human error and, hence minimizing complications.

Less pain – Patients who have had robotic knee replacement surgery find the operation much less painful than conventional knee replacement surgery. The robotic system can be programmed to deliver the exact amount of cuts on the knee, reducing the amount of pain the patient experiences.

The success of robotic knee replacement surgery

The robotic knee replacement surgery procedures successfully provided quicker rehabilitation and lesser hospital stay. It is personalized and more precise. Moreover, it provides a more predictable and consistent outcome.


As the robotic system helps in better preoperative planning, optimal alignment, and precision in bone cutting hence it is associated with improved early functional recovery and reduced time to hospital discharge compared with conventional total knee arthroplasty. For patients interested in robotic surgery, it is essential to consult a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon to discuss the option thoroughly.


-Is robotic surgery safe(r)?

Answer– Yes, experts recommend robotic surgery as safe because there is minimal risk of infection and complications due to less human intervention.

-Is robotic surgery painful?

Answer – Compared to traditional procedures, robotic surgery is less painful because of less tissue damage.

-Is robotic surgery widely performed?

Answer – Yes, robotic surgery is quite widely performed in most major Indian cities and different parts of the world.

-Is robotic surgery better than regular surgery?

Answer – In terms of medical technology advancement and patient ease and comfort, robotic surgery is recommended, but the final call on the kind of surgery a patient undergoes depends on the extent of joint damage and the surgeon’s advice.

-How effective is robotic surgery?

Answer – Robotic surgery is very effective. Most hospitals list this surgery as a day procedure, and it is very effective with its shorter recovery period, accuracy, and precision at the time of surgery and fewer chances of infection and pain.

-What is the best type of knee surgery?

Answer – The best type of knee surgery depends on the patient’s condition and the surgeon’s
recommendation of the procedure. In terms of medical technology, robotic knee replacement surgery will always be preferred for the various advantages in terms of precision, accuracy, and outcome.

Cancer occurs when the cells in our body grow and multiply uncontrollably, and as the name suggests, blood cancer begins at the blood cells and bone marrow, where blood is produced. Stem cells in the bone marrow develop into three types of blood cells; red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood cancer occurs when abnormal blood cells start multiplying uncontrollably, thus affecting the functioning of the normal blood cells. Blood cancer is also known as hematologic cancer. This hinders the body’s ability to combat infections and prevents the production of new blood cells. There are three major types of blood cancer; namely – 

  • Leukaemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Myeloma

Let us look at these three types of blood cancer in detail.


This type of cancer is found in the blood and bone marrow. There is a rapid production of abnormal white blood cells in those diagnosed with leukaemia. Due to the higher number of abnormal white blood cells, the body cannot fight infections. This also interferes with the bone marrow’s ability to produce more red blood cells and platelets. Leukaemia is divided into four types based on the kind of blood cell it affects and how quickly it grows.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL): This type starts with white blood cells known as lymphocytes. In this condition, the body produces too many lymphocytes that interfere with the healthy white blood cells, preventing them from functioning effectively. This cancer is most likely to develop in children 3 – 5 years old or adults over the age of 75. Some of the risk factors include:

  • A sibling diagnosed with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Previous cancer treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Increased exposure to radiation
  • Genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome

 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) begins at the myeloid cells that grow into white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This condition leads to a decrease in the number of healthy blood cells. Acute Myeloid Leukemia mainly affects people over 65 and is more common in men. The risk factors of AML include:

  • Previous treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals such as Benzene
  • Smoking
  • Prior history of blood disorders such as myelodysplasia
  • Genetic conditions like Down Syndrome

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This condition starts from the lymphocytes, just like ALL, but grows slowly. One may not notice any symptoms during the initial stages of cancer. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia affects people above the age of 70.

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of blood cancer starts in the myeloid cells and grows slowly. This condition is more common in men as compared to women.


This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus gland. The lymphatic system removes excess fluids from the body and produces immune cells. The white blood cells that help fight infections as known as lymphocytes. Lymphoma causes these cells to multiply, hindering the immune system from functioning effectively. The different types of lymphomas are:

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Hodgkin’s Disease, this type of blood cancer starts in immune cells called the B Lymphocytes. The lymphocytes grow out of control, causing the lymph nodes to swell. This impairs the function of the immune system. In this, you can detect the presence of a specific type of cell known as the Reed-Sternberg cell.

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: This type of cancer too begins at the lymphatic system and interferes with the functioning of the immune system. However, there is no presence of the Reed-Sternberg cell.


This cancer develops in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell responsible for making antibodies. Myeloma can cause damage to the bones and interfere with the healthy blood cells as they multiply, resulting the less production of antibodies to fight infections. This is very common in men over the age of 50. The risk factors of Myeloma include:

  • Family history of Myeloma
  • Obesity
  • Exposure to radiation

What are the symptoms of Blood Cancer?

Some of the most common symptoms of blood cancer include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Headache
  • Breathlessness
  • Discomfort in the abdomen
  • Swollen lymph nodes

How is blood cancer diagnosed?

Your doctor will begin the diagnosis of blood cancer with a physical examination. Your doctor will also review your medical history, examine the lymph nodes, check for infections. Depending on the deductions of the physical exam, different types of diagnostic tests will be recommended.

Biopsy: In this test, a sample of your cell is collected for examination in a laboratory. For a particular type of blood cancer such as lymphoma, the doctors take a lymph node biopsy containing a lymph tissue sample or an entire lymph node.

Imaging Scans: Imaging tools such as CT scan, MRI, PET scan, and ultrasound can help stop tumours or an enlarged cell that may point to cancer. These scans are more effective for some types of blood cancer, such as lymphoma, than Leukemia that does not cause visible tumours.

Blood Tests: Blood tests measure the level of certain substances in your blood. For example, unusual levels of specific proteins may point to a health condition. A Complete Blood Count gives a cell count of different blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.  The treatment for blood cancer depends on the type of cancer and how fast it progresses. While there are several treatment options such as stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, it is essential to ensure that you take certain precautions to prevent the disease by avoiding exposure to radiation, quitting smoking, and maintaining a healthy diet. If you notice any symptoms, talk to your doctor right away to diagnose the condition. Remember, early detection saves lives!