What Is Rectal Cancer?
Rectal cancer develops in the rectum, a chamber between the end of the large intestine and the anus. It usually starts as a growth on the inner lining of the rectum and can spread to other body parts if left untreated. Symptoms of rectal cancer may include changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, abdominal discomfort, and unexplained weight loss.

Diagnosis and Staging of Rectal Cancer
Diagnosing rectal cancer involves a combination of tests and procedures that help identify cancer cells in the rectum. Standard diagnostic tests include a digital rectal exam, colonoscopy, CT scan, MRI, and biopsy. These tests help determine the location and size of cancer and whether it has spread to nearby tissues or organs. In addition, the staging of rectal cancer is crucial in determining the most appropriate treatment options. The TNM staging system is used to stage rectal cancer based on tumour size, lymph node involvement, and distant metastases.

Treatment Modalities for Rectal Cancer in India
The treatment of rectal cancer typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The choice of treatment modality depends on the cancer stage, the tumour’s location, and the patient’s overall health. The treatment modality includes- 

  • Surgery: Surgery is the most common treatment modality for rectal cancer. It is a highly effective treatment, mainly when the cancer is detected early. The benefits of surgery include the removal of cancerous tissue and the prevention of cancer recurrence. It involves the removal of the cancerous tumour along with surrounding tissues and lymph nodes. The type of surgical procedure used depends on the stage and location of cancer.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is a treatment modality that uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It is usually applied with surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed during surgery. The benefits of radiation therapy include the destruction of cancer cells and the prevention of cancer recurrence.
  • Chemotherapy: As a treatment modality, chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It is typically used with surgery and radiation therapy for advanced-stage rectal cancer or when cancer has spread to other body parts. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered orally or intravenously. It can help shrink tumours, prevent cancer recurrence, and slow the progression of advanced-stage cancer. Chemotherapy can also improve the patient’s quality of life by relieving symptoms and reducing pain.

Choosing the Right Treatment Modality for Rectal Cancer
Choosing the suitable treatment modality for rectal cancer depends on several factors, including the cancer stage, the tumour’s location, the patient’s overall health, and preferences.

Rectal cancer is a significant health concern in India, and early detection and treatment are crucial for successful outcomes. With early detection and proper treatment, rectal cancer can be successfully treated, and patients can go on to live healthy and fulfilling lives.

Q: What is the most common treatment modality for rectal cancer?
 Surgery is the most common treatment modality for rectal cancer. Different surgical procedures may be used depending on the stage and location of the tumour.

Q: Can chemotherapy be a standalone treatment modality for rectal cancer?
 Chemotherapy is rarely used as a standalone treatment modality for rectal cancer. It is usually used with other treatments, such as surgery and radiation therapy, to improve outcomes.

Q: Which factors should be considered when selecting a treatment modality for rectal cancer?
 Several factors should be considered when selecting a treatment modality for rectal cancer, including the stage of cancer, the location of the tumour, the patient’s overall health, and the patient’s preferences and values.

Reference links:,with%20colorectal%20cancer%20is%2068.

What is Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy?
Also known as the Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH), stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a technique that uses a circular stapler to reposition and remove excess tissue in the rectum, which is causing the prolapse. At the same time, the procedure also lifts the prolapsed tissue back into the anal canal. 

The procedure is typically completed within an hour. First, the surgeon will insert a proctoscope, a specialised instrument fitted with a light, to view the insides of the rectum and anus. The stapling device is inserted through the proctoscope and positioned around the prolapsed hemorrhoid tissue. Once the device is in place, the surgeon will fire it, creating a circular staple line that removes the excess tissue and lifts the prolapsed tissue back into place.

The stapled hemorrhoidopexy technique most effectively treats grade III and IV hemorrhoids. However, it may also be used to treat grade II hemorrhoids in some instances.

Benefits of Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy
Stapled hemorrhoidopexy offers several benefits for patients compared to traditional hemorrhoidectomy procedures. Some of these benefits include:

  • Reduced pain and discomfort: Since the procedure removes less tissue than traditional hemorrhoidectomy surgeries, patients generally experience less postoperative pain and discomfort.
  • Faster recovery times and shorter hospital stays: Patients typically require less recovery time and can return to work and normal activities sooner than with traditional hemorrhoidectomy procedures. Hospital stays are also shorter, typically ranging from 24-48 hours.
  • Lower risk of bleeding and other complications: The stapling device creates a circular staple line that seals the tissue, reducing the risk of bleeding and other complications that can occur with traditional hemorrhoidectomy procedures.
  • Improved cosmetic outcomes: As the procedure removes less tissue, there is less scarring and better cosmetic outcomes than traditional hemorrhoidectomy surgeries.
  • Prevents of Stenosis of anal canal

Recovery and Aftercare for Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy
After the stapled hemorrhoidopexy procedure, patients will be monitored in a recovery room before being discharged home. Patients may experience discomfort and pain after the procedure, which can typically be managed with pain medications prescribed by the surgeon. Patients should also expect bleeding and discharge for a few days after the procedure.

Patients must follow specific instructions for wound care and activity restrictions during recovery. These instructions may include avoiding strenuous activity, drinking more water, and following a soft, fibrous diet to avoid constipation. Patients should also avoid lifting heavy objects and straining during bowel movements to prevent damage to the surgical site.

Patients typically have a follow-up appointment with their surgeon within a few weeks after the procedure to monitor the healing process and address any concerns or complications.

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a safe and effective procedure for treating prolapsed hemorrhoids. Patients should undergo a thorough preoperative evaluation and follow specific instructions for preparation and aftercare to ensure the best possible outcomes. While there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, the stapled hemorrhoidopexy technique is a valuable treatment option for patients suffering from severely prolapsed hemorrhoids. If you are experiencing symptoms of hemorrhoids, it is essential to speak with your doctor to determine the best treatment for your specific needs.


Q: What is the difference between stapled hemorrhoidopexy and traditional hemorrhoidectomy surgery?
 Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a less invasive technique that uses a special circular stapler to reposition and remove excess tissue in the rectum. Traditional hemorrhoidectomy involves the complete removal of hemorrhoids using surgical instruments.

Q: What is the typical recovery time for stapled hemorrhoidopexy?
Recovery times can vary depending on the individual patient and the extent of the procedure. However, many patients can return to normal activities within a week or two after the surgery.

Q: What are the benefits of stapled hemorrhoidopexy?
 The benefits of this surgery include reduced pain and discomfort, faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, lower risk of bleeding, and improved cosmetic outcomes.



Many people suffer from piles, another term for Haemorrhoids, but the symptoms are always not the same and vary from person to person. These variations mean that not everyone will have the same experience with this common ailment. Therefore, there are varying degrees of severity depending on the presence or absence of symptoms.

What are Haemorrhoids?

Piles or Haemorrhoids are a widespread disorder that affects the large and/or small blood vessels of the rectum and/or anal canal. They cause localized swelling and painful inflammation of the tissues and veins in the lower anus and rectum, leading to tissue growths varying in and around the anus, leading to significant discomfort. It usually occurs due to straining during bowel movements and sitting on the toilet for long periods. This inflammation can cause bleeding, swelling, and itching, which is why it’s also known as anal fissure or anal itching. Although it can occur at any age, it is more likely to strike after middle age and especially after childbirth. The discomfort resulting from Haemorrhoids can be so intense that some people mistake it for a more serious medical condition such as appendicitis or internal bleeding.

Types of Haemorrhoids

There are two kinds of Haemorrhoids- internal and external.

Internal piles are typically not visible during an external examination and occur within the rectum. In contrast, an external one protrudes outside of the anus forming small lumps around the outside edge, the medical term being prolapsed hemorrhoid. They can be very itchy and painful should a blood clot develop, which can block blood flow. Such thrombosed external piles need immediate medical attention.

Doctors have graded internal piles as follows,

  • Grade 1, where the growth of tissues does not protrude out of the anus and cause any symptoms.
  • Grade 2, where the prolapsed Haemorrhoids go back inside on their own.
  • Grade 3, where the prolapsed hemorrhoid requires manual intervention to recede.
  • Grade 4, the piles prolapse outside of the anus, and manual intervention cannot push it inside.

Causes of Haemorrhoids

Haemorrhoids or piles are a result of increased pressure in the lower rectum, and several factors cause them,

  • an anal sphincter (the muscle that controls stool movement),
  • weakness and/or spasms,
  • sitting too long on the toilet,
  • not wiping enough in a sitting position,
  • straining during bowel movement
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Chronic constipation
  • Lifting heavy objects

Diet may also play a role in the development of this condition. Bodies react to certain substances found in certain foods, and sometimes this reaction causes the veins of the anus to become irritated and swollen. A high-fiber diet may increase the risk of developing Haemorrhoids because it increases the amount of stool passed through the body. An increase in fiber in the diet may make it more difficult to fully evacuate the intestines, resulting in straining and, ultimately, Haemorrhoids.

Symptoms of Haemorrhoids

In most cases of piles, the symptoms are not very serious and go away on their own. The most common symptoms  experienced are

  • Pain. Pain or discomfort in the anus that comes and goes, including lumps. Pain can be mild to severe and can be experienced as a burning sensation, aching, or pressure.
  • Bleeding. Haemorrhoids may also cause bleeding or an urgent need to pass stool due to anal spasms. Excessive bleeding can lead to anemia and infection.
  • Itching. Itching and discomfort around the anus or rectum.
  • Discomfort. Feeling of discomfort during and after passing stools, and/or a feeling of fecal incontinence like one needs to pass stool, but nothing is happening.
  • Blood in stools. Blood while passing stools is a common symptom of piles.

Risk factors of Haemorrhoids

Certain factors increase the risk of getting piles like,

  • Straining. Straining while having a bowel movement.
  • Toilet Overuse. Sitting on the toilet for extended periods.
  • Age. The condition is more likely to occur in older individuals.
  • Obesity. Overweight people are more likely to develop piles.
  • Diet. Haemorrhoids are more likely to occur in people who consume a low-fiber diet.
  • Pregnancy. Pregnant women often develop Haemorrhoids because of the increased amount of stool passing through their digestive tracts. In addition, the increased pressure on the veins in the anal canal can cause them to become swollen and painful.

When to See a Doctor

When there is persistent bleeding from the rectum for more than a week, the individual must see a doctor.


At the time of physical examination of th anus for suspected piles, the doctor will ask the following,

  • Family history of piles
  • Presence of blood or mucus in the stools
  • Color of stool
  • Any recent unexplained weight loss
  • Any recent change in bowel movement

In case of internal piles, the doctor may use a proctoscope to perform a digital rectal examination (DRE) to see the anal canal up close and collect a tissue sample from inside the rectum for clinical analysis. In addition, the patient may be recommended to undergo colonoscopy if the signs and symptoms indicate a digestive system disease or risk factors for colorectal cancer.

Food to help treat and prevent Haemorrhoids

The following foods help in the management, treatment, and prevention of Haemorrhoids,

  • Bananas – This fruit’s high fiber content helps prevent and treat Haemorrhoids.
  • Whole-wheat bread – This is a high-fiber bread that helps to prevent and treat Haemorrhoids.
  • Oatmeal – This high-fiber food is also rich in essential vitamins and minerals.
  • Cucumber – This vegetable is high in water, which helps to keep the anal canal hydrated, reduces inflammation, and prevents and treats anal itching.
  • Grapes – This fruit is high in natural antioxidants that have anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Apples – Apples’ high fiber content helps prevent and treat Haemorrhoids.
  • Kiwi fruit – This high-fiber fruit is rich in vitamins and minerals, which have anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Pineapple – This high-fiber fruit is rich in vitamin C and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Watermelon – This high-fiber fruit is also rich in vitamins and minerals.

Prevention and Treatment for Haemorrhoids

In most cases, Haemorrhoids resolve on their own and require no treatment. However, in some cases, medicines and treatment will be given to reduce the pain and discomfort of itching and make the symptoms more manageable.

  • Medications – Your doctor may prescribe anal fissure medications. These include over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers, anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotics to reduce discomfort, stool softeners, and laxatives to soften the stool and make it easier to pass and reduce the pain. These medications are to be taken for a certain period of time and then stopped.
  • Antispasmodics and Anal Sterilization – These are herbs or supplements that are to be taken orally or inserted into the anal canal to reduce anal spasms and relieve anal pain. These are non-prescription remedies that are to be taken for a certain period of time until the condition goes away.
  • Ointments –  Corticosteroid creams and anal fissure ointments help to relieve itching and reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Home Remedies – Some people prefer to use natural remedies to treat their Haemorrhoids. These include eating cucumbers and drinking watermelon juice.
  • Lifestyle Changes – Doctors will recommend a bunch of lifestyle changes to manage and lower the risk of developing Haemorrhoids. Those measures include regular exercise to stay active, maintaining moderate weight, avoiding heavy lifting and caffeinated drinks, increased water intake and food high in fiber to prevent constipation, and not straining while going to the bathroom.
  • Natural Remedies – Haemorrhoids can be a source of great discomfort. If this is the case, talk to your doctor about the possibility of using natural remedies to reduce the pain and treat the condition.

Procedural Options

There are minimally invasive procedures should medications and home treatments fail to treat piles or in case of severe prolapsed piles or heavily bleeding internal piles.

  • Rubber Band Litigation: Employed to treat prolapsed piles, the doctor wraps a specific type of elastic band around the base of the Haemorrhoids, cutting off its blood supply. The banded component of hemorrhoid shrivels and falls off within a week.
  • Sclerotherapy – Especially effective for Grade 2 and Grade 3 Haemorrhoids, the doctor injects a medicine into the Haemorrhoids causing them to shrink and stop bleeding.
  • Infrared Coagulation – In this procedure, the doctor uses an infrared light devise to burn the tissues of the internal piles. As a result, scar tissues form, cutting off the blood supply and reducing the piles.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy:  Hemorrhoidectomy as a surgical procedure involves complete removal of the prolapse of Haemorrhoids. There is always the risk of complications like difficulty in passing stools.
  • MIPH (Minimally invasive procedure for Hemorrhoid): In this procedure, the internal hemorrhoid tissue is removed, and the doctor will pull back the prolapse of internal hemorrhoid into the anus by using a special stapling circular device and cut off the blood supply to the hemorrhoid tissue.


Will Haemorrhoids go away on their own?

Haemorrhoids may go away on their own if the underlying risk factors are addressed, such as straining while having a bowel movement and not sitting on the toilet for too long.

How can I prevent Haemorrhoids?

Regular exercise, a high fiber diet, and drinking plenty of water can help prevent and treat Haemorrhoids.

What are some home remedies for Haemorrhoids?

Some people prefer to use natural remedies such as nettle leaf, aloe vera, and honey to treat their Haemorrhoids.

Are Haemorrhoids common?

Haemorrhoids are common, but not every individual experiences pain or discomfort.

What should I do if I experience symptoms?

See a doctor if you experience any pain or discomfort during a bowel movement.

Are piles serious?

If left untreated, piles can be severe and debilitating, affecting one’s quality of life.

How do you know if you have piles?

If you experience pain at the time of passing stools and see blood in the stools, that is an indication of piles.

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common anorectal disorders; according to NCBI it affects around 25% to 30% of the population. People of all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities are affected. Piles become increasingly common as people become older, affecting more than half of those over the age of 50. Hemorrhoids are very common, so don’t be shy to get help! Hemorrhoids are bulging, inflated veins that occur in the anus and rectum (Back passage). They can be unpleasant, painful, and cause rectal bleeding. Hemorrhoids, are natural cushions we’re all are born with, although they don’t bother us at first. They only cause uncomfortable symptoms when they become swollen and enlarged, then known as swollen piles.

Hemorrhoids (Piles) are a topic that most people avoid discussing and prefer being silent about. But being silent may prevent you from receiving treatment for a common ailment and which can land you up in severity. Your doctor isn’t shy about bringing up the subject of haemorrhoids, so discuss freely. 

When to see the doctor? 

Most people think of hemorrhoids as a minor problem, it can be very painful. It is important to know when to treat hemorrhoids on your own and when to seek help, as it can avoid unnecessary complications. 

Make an appointment with your doctor if you’re having any of the following symptoms related to your hemorrhoids:

  • You notice bright red blood on your toilet paper or have rectal bleeding.
  • Your rectum or anus is causing you agony and discomfort.
  • You’ve tried over-the-counter medications for more than a week and they haven’t helped you.
  • You experience a maroon or dark tar-colored bowel movement, which could be an indication of bleeding.
  • You feel mass outside your back passage

If your rectal bleeding won’t stop and you’re feeling dizzy or faint, it’s a medical emergency that necessitates a visit to the Emergency room (ER). 

 How do doctors treat Haemorrhoids? 

 Hemorrhoids are treated by doctors in the office, in an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. Treatment depends on severity. For an initial stage of piles lifestyle changes can help you if given at on right time. For mild piles office procedures can help you. But for severe piles surgery is the only option.

Office procedures for very mild piles:

  • Rubber band ligation: Rubber band ligation is a treatment that surgeons employ to treat internal hemorrhoids that are bleeding or prolapsing. A doctor wraps a specific type of rubber band around haemorrhoid’s base. The band stops the blood supply. Within a week, the banded component of hemorrhoid shrivels and slumps.
  • Sclerotherapy: In this therapy, a surgeon injects a special chemical into haemorrhoids, which causes the haemorrhoid to shrink, while also stopping it from bleeding.
  • Photocoagulation with infrared light: A doctor employs an infrared light instrument to treat internal hemorrhoids. Scar tissue forms as a result of the infrared light’s heat, cutting off the blood supply and reducing hemorrhoids.
  • Electrocoagulation: A doctor inserts an electric current into an internal hemorrhoid with an instrument. Scar tissue forms as a result of the electric current, cutting off the blood supply and reducing hemorrhoids.

Surgical procedures for moderate to severe piles:

  • Haemorrhoidectomy: A haemorrhoidectomy is a procedure in which a surgeon removes the prolapse of hemorrhoids (which is coming out from the back opening) by cutting it directly with a scalpel, scissors, or electrical energy source.
  • MIPH (Minimally invasive procedure for Hemorrhoid): Internal hemorrhoid tissue is removed and the prolapse of the internal hemorrhoid is pulled back into the anus by using a special stapling circular device.

Today, let us know more about MIPH 

MIPH (Minimally invasive procedure for Hemorrhoid) or Stapled haemorrhoidopexy is a surgical procedure for treating hemorrhoids. It is the preferred therapy for third and fourth-degree hemorrhoids (a severe form of piles that protrude with straining and are visible on physical examination outside the anal margin. The manual reduction must be done on a regular or irregular basis). Stapled haemorrhoidectomy is a misnomer because the procedure removes the unusually slack and enlarged tissue which supports hemorrhoids that have caused the hemorrhoids to prolapse downward, rather than the hemorrhoids themselves.

A circular, short hollow tube is introduced into the anal canal for stapled haemorrhoidopexy. A suture (a long thread) is woven circumferentially through the anal canal above the internal hemorrhoids through this tube. The stapler (a disposable instrument with a circular stapling device at the end) is inserted into the hollow tube, and the suture ends are brought together and pulled inside the stapler along with prolapsed hemorrhoids. Stapler when fired causes cutting of slack tissue and stapling of hemorrhoids back to their original position.

 Patients who undergo a minimally invasive procedure for hemorrhoids (MIPH)/ Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy benefit from the following:

  • Return to work as soon as possible
  • There is very little discomfort
  • There are no cuts, hence there are no dressings required
  • There are no follow-ups
  • Released from the hospital in a day

Comparison between MIPH and Conventional Haemorrhoidectomy

Haemorrhoidectomy is a procedure that removes hemorrhoids from the body. You will be given general or spinal anesthesia to prevent you from feeling discomfort. Around hemorrhoids, incisions are made in the tissue. To prevent bleeding, the enlarged vein inside the hemorrhoid is tied off, and the hemorrhoid is removed. It is possible to suture the surgical area to shut it or leave it exposed. The wound is covered with medicated gauze. A knife (scalpel), an electric tool (cautery pencil), or a laser can be used to do surgery. In most cases, the procedure is performed in a surgical center. You’ll probably return home the next day or more.

Stapler Haemorrhoidectomy / MIPH (Minimally Invasive Procedure for PILES) is a procedure where an expert surgeon employs stapling equipment to remove a portion of the pile mass with a staple gun, addressing two major concerns: bleeding and prolapsed hemorrhoids. The titanium staples not only cut but also seal at the same time, which lowers bleeding and post-operative pain. Because no extra incision on the lower region of the anal canal is necessary, the patient does not require any post-operative dressing. A patient can return home the same day and resume normal life in a day or two.

The most prevalent complaints of piles are painless rectum bleeding and haemorrhoidal prolapse, painful defecation. When compared to open haemorrhoidectomy, the average length of surgery for MIPH and post-operative bleeding is much shorter. The postoperative pain score and subsequent need for analgesics are significantly lower in the MIPH. MIPH patients have a faster average wound healing time and a quicker return to routine activities. Less recurrence or incontinence is observed. Similarly, there are no significant differences in long-term problems between MIPH and traditional open haemorrhoidectomy in patients with MIPH.

MIPH is a frequently used and safe procedure for grade III and IV hemorrhoids. It results in less pain, a shorter hospital stay, and fewer early postoperative problems. Wound healing and return to normal activities are faster, and long-term problems are not significantly different.

What are Piles/Hemorrhoids?

Piles, also known as Hemorrhoids, are a collection of swollen tissues and veins in your anus and lower rectum. They can be of two types – internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids develop inside the anal canal, while external hemorrhoids develop on the skin around the anus. These hemorrhoids may vary in size. Piles may occur due to constipation, chronic diarrhea, lifting heavy weights, pregnancy, and straining while passing stools.  

Usually, hemorrhoids don’t require any treatment and resolve on their own. But when the condition turns severe, treatment is needed. The symptoms of piles depend on the type and location. In the case of external hemorrhoids, the symptoms might include irritation/itching in the anal region, pain, discomfort, swelling, and bleeding. In the case of internal hemorrhoids, the hemorrhoids cannot be seen, but they can cause painless bleeding while passing stools. Protruding hemorrhoids have feeling of some mass in the anal region that causes pain and irritation.

What are the various treatment/cure methods for Piles?

There are different ways to cure piles, depending on the severity of it. Some of the most effective treatment methods are:

For early and mild pile piles:

Home Remedies: If the hemorrhoids are mild, then you can cure them through certain home remedies such as making dietary and lifestyle changes, using over-the-counter hemorrhoid cream containing hydrocortisone, and soaking your anal area in warm water for 10-15 minutes every day.

Rubber Band Ligation: In this procedure, your doctor will place one or two tiny rubber bands on the base of the internal hemorrhoids to stop the circulation. Within a week, the hemorrhoid withers and falls off.

Sclerotherapy: Your doctor will inject a chemical into hemorrhoid to shrink it. Though this procedure causes less pain, it is also less effective than the rubber band ligation.

Coagulation: This technique uses laser or infrared light to harden internal hemorrhoids that bleed, shriveling them.

For moderate to severe piles:

External Hemorrhoid Thrombectomy: In case of thrombosis (a painful blood clot) in external hemorrhoid, your doctor will remove hemorrhoid, which will provide immediate relief. This procedure is done under local anesthesia and is extremely effective if performed within 72 hours of the blood clot.

Hemorrhoid Removal: Also known as Hemorrhoidectomy, this is a surgical procedure in which the surgeon removes the excess tissue which is protruding out of anal canal that causes bleeding. This method is used to treat severe piles.

Hemorrhoid Stapling: This procedure is also known as Stapled hemorrhoidopexy. It blocks the blood flow to the hemorrhoid tissue by taking cutting and pulling the piles up on its position. It is usually used to treat internal hemorrhoids.

What is Anal Fissure?

An anal fissure is a tear in the mucosa (a thin, moist tissue) lining of the anus. The tearing of the skin causes severe pain and bleeding during and even after bowel movements. Though it is most commonly seen in infants and children, an anal fissure can affect people of all age groups. Most times, the fissure heals on its own with a month to six weeks. But if it persists after that, it can be considered chronic. Sometimes, the fissure tends to be deep enough to expose the muscle tissue.

The most common causes of an anal fissure are constipation, straining during bowel movements, passing large/hard stools, diarrhea, childbirth, and anal intercourse. A person suffering from an anal fissure may experience one or more of the following symptoms, which include, mild/severe pain during bowel movements, visible tear/crack on the skin around the anus, a small lump near the tear, streaks of blood after passing stools on the toilet seat or the tissue paper, pain after bowel movements that lasts for a long time.

How can Anal Fissure be cured?

Usually, Anal Fissure doesn’t require extensive treatment. Certain home remedies can help cure anal fissure and relieve symptoms. Some treatment methods to cure anal fissure are:

Home remedies: You can take measures to keep your stools soft, such as increasing the intake of fibers and fluids, and taking a sitz bath to relax the anal muscles, relieve irritation, and increase blood flow.

Applying Nitroglycerin: Applying a nitroglycerin cream or ointment will help increase blood flow to the anal area and reduce inflammation.

Botox Injection: The Botulinum toxin type A (botox) injection may help paralyze the anal sphincter muscle and relax the spasms.

Blood Pressure Medicines: These medicines can also help relax the anal muscle. This can be used when nitroglycerin is not effective or causes significant side effects.

Surgery: If the anal fissure is severe, your doctor might suggest surgery known as the Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy (LIS), in which a small portion of the anal sphincter muscle will be removed to reduce pain and promote healing.

What is the difference between Piles and Fissure?

While piles are a collection of swollen tissues in and around the anus region, fissure refers to a crack in the anal cavity.

What is Anal Fistula?

An anal fistula is a small tunnel that develops between the anal canal and the skin near the anus. They’re usually the result of an infection near the anus causing a collection of pus (abscess) in the nearby tissue. When the pus drains away, it can leave a small channel behind. In the fistula, the center portion of the anus gets infected and forms an abscess, which starts oozing pus.

What is the difference between Piles and Fistula?

Piles are caused due to constipation, diarrhea, pregnancy, and weight lifting, while fistula is caused due to trauma, Crohn’s disease, warts or cancer. Piles can usually be diagnosed by self by observing the signs and symptoms while detecting fistula might be difficult and may require an MRI scan or a sonofistulagram.
Piles are less severe as they can be cured with home remedies and other less invasive techniques, while fistula can only be treated through surgeries such as fistulotomy, seton techniques, advancement flap procedure, and LIFT procedure. Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT) is a non-surgical method commonly used to treat fistula.

Be it piles, anal fissures or fistula, the first step to prevent them is by practicing better hygiene, especially when it comes to defecation. All three conditions can also be prevented by indulging in a high-fiber diet and increasing the intake of fluids, everyday physical activities and avoiding strains. It is also important for one to be mindful of the symptoms and seek immediate medical help to prevent the conditions from becoming severe.

Disclaimer: This blog is only for awareness purpose. We do not intent to promote any medications given in the blog. Please consult your physician before taking any medication.